One of Oakland Counties most prestigious painting company

Troy and Birmingham Michigan Painting & Drywall Contractor, Quality Commercial, Industrial and Residential Painting, Interior and Exterior, Painters, Paint Contractors, Drywall Repair and Installation, Carpentry, Remodeling and Restoration services 248-787-0963, Serving all of Metro Detroit and the surounding suburbs of Oakland, Macomb and Wayne County's in Michigan

Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc. – S. E. Michigan, Metro Detroit, Oakland County, Macomb County, Wayne County, Quality Interior and Exterior, Residential, Industrial and Commercial Painting, Drywall and Carpentry Contractor – 248-787-0963 - Residential , Commercial & Industrial crews available

Custom Painting for the Quality Conscious Homeowner

• Premium Grade Coatings Used
• Thorough Surface Preparation
• Fully Insured
• Quality Guaranteed

For a free interior paint or exterior paint estimate and other services, please contact us at (248) 787-0963


Troy and Birmingham Mi. Painting and Drywall
Troy and Birmingham Mi. painting and drywall contractor providing reliable residential, industrial and commercial interior and exterior quality remodeling, restoration, custom painting, carpentry, drywall repair and installation to metro Detroit and all of south east Michigan 248-787-0963

Troy and Birmingham Mi. painting and drywall

Troy and Birmingham Michigan's Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc (www.oaklandcountypaint.com) Is a local Troy and Birmingham Mi. painting and drywall contractor with many years of experience specializing in interior and exterior painting , all carpentry, drywall, remodeling, restoration and repairs. Whether you're a perfectionist looking for the best quality custom work or a Realtor simply looking to quickly fix up a property, you can assure Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc will provide the necessary services you need with golden results. We strive to be Troy and Birmingham Michigan's leading interior and exterior painting, drywall, and carpentry company. Troy and Birmingham's Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc. is a group of painting, drywall and carpentry craftsman devoted to expanding painting, drywall and carpentry knowledge, and to preserve and beautify Troy and Birmingham Mi. and the surrounding areas.

Let us remodel, repair or restore the interior or exterior of your home or place of business to a place of beauty, relaxation and serenity. Golden Touch Painting and Drywall repair is one of Troy and Birmingham's leading interior and exterior painting, drywall, carpentry, restoration and remodeling companies. We have performed so many quality, custom carpentry, painting and drywall repairs both commercial and residential all over metro Detroit and other Oakland Wayne and Macomb County Mi. cities such as Troy, Birmingham, Rochester Hills, Royal Oak, Ferndale, West Bloomfield, Bloomfield Hills, Southfield and so many other cities. We are a company who has worked hard to earn a reputation for quality craftsmanship and look forward to showing the residents of Troy and Birmingham Mi. that it is well deserved. It is important to us to build a strong relationship with you, the communities, business owners and contractors which we serve. It's our goal to leave every customer satisfied, wanting to use us for many years to come and also recommend us to others. We pride ourselves on attention to detail and custom quality work, you can rest assure that the ending results of anything we touch will be as good as gold!

Please do not get us mixed up with your regular ordinary handyman service, because all of the individuals that work for Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc are professional and reliable craftsman, each specializing in there own field of operations with many years of experience under there belts. For instance, we have certain painters who are more knowledgeable and experienced dealing with high end residential custom repaints, also we have other professional painters who are more experienced with commercial painting aspects, others who are more experienced with interior painting, and others who are more experienced with exterior painting and the same goes for our drywall crews and carpentry crews, so whichever your needs might be you can rest assure that Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc. of Troy and Birmingham Michigan will provide you with the best qualified professionals performing the best quality work and craftsmanship available each in there own fields of operation.

Troy and Birmingham's Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Contractor offer's free estimates to Oakland County, Macomb County and Wayne County residents for the following services:

Painting:
Residential Painting, Commercial Painting, Industrial Painting, Interior Painting & Exterior Painting, home painting, house painting, office painting, Murals, Staining and varnishing, Faux Finishes (multiple methods), Epoxy floor coatings, Heavy Industrial Floor Resurfacing, Murals, Staining and varnishing, faux painting, Faux Finishes (multiple methods), Wall paper removal, Wall paper hanging, Caulking, Fire and Water Damage Repair, Insurance work, walls, ceilings, rafters, metal deck ceilings, Power washing, Water-Blast Cleaning 3,000-25,000 psi, Deck restoration, Deck Cleaning, Deck Staining and water proofing, Block or Concrete water proofing, Block and Concrete Staining, Air hangers, industrial coatings, industrial structures, Storage Tank painting, abrasive resistant coatings, heat resistant coatings, parking structures, parking garages, Arenas, Entertainment Venues, Towers, smoke stacks, apartments, Condo's, Hotels, Casinos, Fire Retardant Painting, Anti graffiti painting, Adhesive Coatings, Anti Corrosion Coatings, Ceramic Adhesives, Electrostatic coatings, Wall Coatings, Heat Resistant Coatings, Industrial Adhesives, Paint Adhesives, Polyurethane Adhesives, Specialty Primers, Water Proof Paints, Storage silos, farm equipment painting, Barn painting, maintenance, government property maintenance, property maintenance, military base maintenance, military building maintenance, government building maintenance, Factories, Factory painting, Roof coatings, Health facilities, Hospitals, Nursing Homes, Industrial plant Maintenance, Restaurants, Aluminum anything painting including fences and siding, Steele structure coatings including metal deck ceilings, Large and Small Spraying Applications of High-performance Chemical Coatings, Technical Coating Applications, Tank & Storage Vessel Painting & Coatings, Sand Blasting, Corrosion Control, Sandblasting and Water-blasting, Concrete Polishing, Diamond Polishing, Blast Cleaning with Environmentally-safe Media (BlackBeauty™, aluminum oxide, walnut shells, etc.)

Drywall:
Drywall demolition, Drywall Installation, Drywall Repair, Drywall Hanging, Drywall Taping, Drywall Finishing, Drywall sanding, Popcorn ceilings & other textured wall & ceiling applications.

Carpentry:
Rough Carpentry, Finish Carpentry, Custom Carpentry, Rotted wood replacement, Basement Finishing, Interior Demolition, Interior Carpentry, Exterior Carpentry, Window & Door installation including bay windows or any kind of custom carpentry work, Drop Ceilings, any form of Acoustical ceilings and finishes, Stair installment and removal, Siding repair and Installation, Aluminum or Vinyl Siding removal and installation, Roof repair, roof removal, roof installation, flat roofs, all roofs, roof deicing, gutter cleaning, gutter repair, gutter installation, interior and exterior decorative trim installation, crown molding installation, Custom Deck Building, Deck Repair, Tile flooring and other flooring needs, Tile walls, Rehabbing houses, rehabbing homes, rehabbing buildings, rehabbing properties, remodeling homes, remodeling houses, remodeling buildings, remodeling properties, Restoring houses, restoring homes, restoring buildings, restoring properties, bathroom remodeling, kitchen remodeling, home additions, noise prevention, sound barriers, sound control.

We focus on individual service and attention to detail that produces dramatic results in a personal, professional and cost-effective manner. We take great pride in our ability to provide professional service and efficient completion of all your project needs.
With so many years of experience with commercial, industrial and residential interior and exterior painting, drywall hanging and finishing, carpentry, remodeling and restoration in the Troy and Birmingham Mi. area, our team of precision quality painters, drywall hangers, finishers and carpenters can take care of almost any issue's within these fields of operation. From a straightforward paint job to complete renovations. We have been contracted to paint, remodel or restore nearly every type of structure, be it a restaurant, an apartment building, a Home Owners Association, a custom home, a place of business, an entire commercial office complex or an industrial site. In addition, we guarantee our results so that you know you will get the best quality job within your price range.

Golden Touch Painting & Drywall of Troy and Birmingham Michigan understands that your home or business can be one of your most valuable assets, so we strive to make the finished product something that helps retain its value for decades to come. Our friendly and respectful staff will treat your house or place of business like it was their own and our crews are trained to be responsive and hassle-free when dealing with clients. We do our best to try to give you your privacy while we work and will be more than happy to thoroughly answer any questions you may have. Our quotation process is simple, without convoluted processes and fees. Step by step, Golden touch Painting and Drywall experts will walk you through your home or place of business to understand the precise needs of each individual room for interior painting and inspect every curve and nook on the outside for exterior work. Golden Touch Painting and Drywall's thorough and experienced Troy and Birmingham Mi. staff will make sure your home or business painting, remodeling or restoration project is complete on-budget and on-time.
We focus on individual service and attention to detail that produces dramatic results in a personal, professional and cost-effective manner. We take great pride in our ability to provide professional service and efficient completion of all your project needs. Our experience allows us to complete jobs faster and with more precision.

Golden Touch Painting & Drywall's team of qualified professionals undergo thorough training in advanced painting, drywall and carpentry techniques and safety operations. Our staff has a positive and helpful approach towards answering customers’ questions and addressing your needs.

Attention to detail and custom finishes are our priorities. The most important part of a top-quality paint job is not just the painting, it is the preparation before paint is applied. Remember that paint is only as good as the surface it goes on. We take meticulous care in surface preparation and selection of outstanding surfacing materials and finishes in which we use.
Believe it or not but carpentry, drywall and painting all deal with one another, each depending on the other to look there best, so when you have the best experts in each one of the field's putting together top quality work, you can bet on a A1 top notch quality job being performed, and that's what Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc delivers to all of our customers.

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall recognizes the importance of providing our services at times that are convenient and necessary to you. Therefore, we provide crews on off-hours and weekends so our work will not interfere with your normal day-to-day operations and business.
For our employees, we encourage the free exchange of ideas and provide opportunities for training, employment, career advancement, and economic security fairly and equally to all who would apply themselves, as well as to provide a safe working environment by establishing good safety practices in compliance with current federal, state and local laws.

Troy and Birmingham Mi. resident Specials:
15% off- complete repaints of Residential Exteriors to the first 20 customers to sign up for the spring and summer 2011 season.
10% off- complete repaints of Residential interiors (Dec. – Apr.
Multiple room discounts, Realtor discounts
Referral bonuses
Preferred customer discounts



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We are happy to provide our Interior and Exterior Painting, drywall and carpentry services to all of these communities and cities in the Oakland, Macomb & Wayne Counties of Michigan.

Oakland County Michigan, Addison Township 48367, Addison Twp 48367, Auburn Hills 48321, Auburn Hills 48326, Berkley 48072, Beverly Hills 48025, Bingham Farms 48025, Birmingham 48009, Birmingham 48012, Bloomfield 48301, Bloomfield 48302, Bloomfield 48303, Bloomfield 48304, Bloomfield Hills 48301, Bloomfield Hills 48302, Bloomfield Hills 48303, Bloomfield Hills 48304, Bloomfield Township 48301, Bloomfield Township 48302, Bloomfield Township 48303, Bloomfield Township 48304, Bloomfield Twp 48303, Bloomfield Village 48301, Bloomfield Hls 48303, Bloomfield Twp 48303, Clarkston 48346, Clarkston 48347, Clarkston 48348, Clawson 48017, Commerce Township 48382, Commerce Township 48390, Commerce Twp 48382, Commerce Twp 48390, Davisburg 48350, Detroit 48220, Detroit 48237, Drayton Plains 48330, Drayton Plns 48330, Farmington Hls 48331, Farmington Hls 48332, Farmington Hls 48333, Farmington Hls 48334, Farmington Hls 48335, Farmington Hls 48336, Farmington 48331, Farmington 48332, Farmington 48333, Farmington 48334Farmington 48335, Farmington 48336, Farmington Hills 48331, Farmington Hills 48332, Farmington Hills 48333, Farmington Hills 48334, Farmington Hills 48335,, Farmington Hills 48336, Farmington Hls 48331, Farmington Hls 48332, Farmington Hls 48333, Farmington Hls 48334, Farmington Hls 48335, Farmington Hls 48336, Ferndale 48220, Franklin 48025, Goodison 48306, Hazel Park 48030, Highland 48356, Highland 48357, Holly 48442, Huntington Wds 48070, Huntington Woods 48070, Independence 48346, Independence 48348, Keego Harbor 48320, Lake Angelus 48326, Lake Orion 48359, Lake Orion 48360, Lake Orion 48361, Lake Orion 48362, Lakeville 48366, Lathrup Village 48076, Lathrup Vlg 48076, Leonard 48367, Madison Heights 48071, Madison Hts 48071, MI Metro 48340, Milford 48380, Milford 48381, New Hudson 48165, Novi 48374, Novi 48375, Novi 48376, Novi 48377, Oak Park 48237, Oakland 48306, Oakland 48363, Oakland Township 48306, Oakland Twp 48306, Orchard Lake 48323, Orchard Lake 48324, Orion 48359, Orion 48360, Orion 48362, Ortonville 48462, Oxford 48370, Oxford 48371, Pleasant Ridge 48069, Pleasant Ridge 48069, Pontiac 48340, Pontiac 48341, Pontiac 48342, Pontiac 48343, Rochester 48306, Rochester 48307, Rochester 48308, Rochester 48309, Rochester Hills 48306, Rochester Hills 48307, Rochester Hills 48309, Rochester Hls 48306, Rochester Hls 48307, Rochester Hls 48309, Royal Oak 48067, Royal Oak 48068, Royal Oak 48073, South Lyon 48178, Southfield 48033, Southfield 48034, Southfield 48037, Southfield 48075, Southfield 48076, Southfield 48086, Springfield Township 48350, Springfield Twp 48350, Sylvan Lake 48320, Troy 48007, Troy 48083, Troy 48084, Troy 48085, Troy 48098, Troy 48099, Union Lake 48387, W Bloomfield 48322, W Bloomfield 48323, W Bloomfield 48324, W Bloomfield 48325, Walled Lake 48390, Walled Lake 48391, Waterford 48327, Waterford 48328, Waterford 48329, Waterford Township 48329, West Bloomfield 48322, West Bloomfield 48323, West Bloomfield 48324, West Bloomfield 48325, White Lake 48383, White Lake 48386, Wixom 48393, Wolverine Lake 48390, Wolverine Lk 48390
Wayne County Michigan, Canton 48187, Canton 48188, Dearborn 48120, Dearborn 48121, Dearborn 48123, Dearborn 48124, Dearborn 48126, Dearborn 48128, Dearborn Heights 48125, Dearborn Heights 48127, Dearborn Hts 48125, Dearborn Hts 48127, Ecorse 48229, Flat Rock 48134, Garden City 48135, Garden City 48136, Gibraltar 48173, Grosse Ile 48138, Grosse Pointe 48215, Grosse Pointe 48224, Grosse Pointe 48230, Grosse Pointe 48236, Grosse Pointe Farms 48230, Grosse Pointe Farms 48236, Grosse Pointe Park 48215, Grosse Pointe Park 48224, Grosse Pointe Park 48230, Grosse Pointe Park 48236, Grosse Pointe Shores 48230, Grosse Pointe Shores 48236, Grosse Pointe Woods 48230, Grosse Pointe Woods 48236, Hamtramck 48211, Hamtramck 48212, Harper Woods 48225, Highland Park 48203, Inkster 48141, Lincoln Park 48146, Livonia 48150, Livonia 48151, Livonia 48152, Livonia 48153, Livonia 48154, Melvindale 48122, New Boston 48164, Northville 48167, Northville 48168, Northville Township 48167, Northville Twp 48167, Plymouth 48170, Redford 48239, Redford 48240, River Rouge 48218, Riverview 48192, Riverview 48193, Rockwood 48173, Romulus 48174, Southgate 48195, Sumpter Twp 48111, Taylor 48180, Trenton 48183, Van Buren Twp 48111, Wayne 48184, Westland 48185, Westland 48186, Woodhaven 48183, Wyandotte 48192, Wyandotte 48193
Macomb County Michigan, Armada 48005, Bruce 48065, Bruce Township 48065, Bruce TWP 48065, Center Line 48015, Chesterfield 48047, Chesterfield 48051, Clinton Township 48035, Clinton Township 48036, Clinton Township 48038, Clinton Twp 48035, Clinton Twp 48036, Clinton Twp 48038, East Detroit 48021, Eastpointe 48021, Fraser 48026, Harrison Township 48045, Harrison Twp 48045, Lenox 48048, Lenox 48050, Macomb 48042, Macomb 48044, Mount Clemens 48043, Mount Clemens 48046, New Baltimore 48047, New Baltimore 48051, New Haven 48048, New Haven 48050, Ray 48096, Ray Twp 48096, Richmond 48062, Romeo 48065, Roseville 48066, Saint Clair Shores 48080, Saint Clair Shores 48081, Saint Clair Shores 48082, Selfridge 48045, Selfridge Angb 48045, Shelby Township 48315, Shelby Township 48316, Shelby Township 48317, Shelby Township 48318, Shelby Twp 48315, Shelby Twp 48316, Shelby Twp 48317, Shelby Twp 48318, St Clair Shrs 48080, St Clair Shrs 48081, St Clair Shrs 48082, St Clr Shores 48080, St Clr Shores 48081, St Clr Shores 48082, Sterling Heights 48310, Sterling Heights 48311, Sterling Heights 48312, Sterling Heights 48313, Sterling Heights 48314, Sterling Hts 48310, Sterling Hts 48311, Sterling Hts 48312, Sterling Hts 48313, Sterling Hts 48314, Utica 48315, Utica 48316, Utica 48317, Utica 48318, Warren 48088, Warren 48089, Warren 48090, Warren 48091, Warren 48092, Warren 48093, Warren 48397, Washington Twp 48094, Washingtonn Twp 48095

Painting
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The Mona Lisa, by Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci, is one of the most recognizable artistic paintings in the world.
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium[1] to a surface (support base). The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art the term describes both the act and the result which is called a painting. Paintings may have for their support such surfaces as walls, paper, canvas, wood, glass, lacquer, clay, copper or concrete, and may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, clay, paper, gold leaf as well as objects.
Painting is a mode of expression and the forms are numerous. Drawing, composition or abstraction and other aesthetics may serve to manifest the expressive and conceptual intention of the practitioner. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational (as in a still life or landscape painting), photographic, abstract, be loaded with narrative content, symbolism, emotion or be political in nature.
A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by spiritual motifs and ideas; examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery to Biblical scenes rendered on the interior walls and ceiling of The Sistine Chapel, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other scenes of eastern religious origin.

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[edit] Elements


Chen Hongshou (1598–1652), Leaf album painting (Ming Dynasty).

[edit] Intensity

What enables painting is the perception and representation of intensity. Every point in space has different intensity, which can be represented in painting by black and white and all the gray shades between. In practice, painters can articulate shapes by juxtaposing surfaces of different intensity; by using just color (of the same intensity) one can only represent symbolic shapes. Thus, the basic means of painting are distinct from ideological means, such as geometrical figures, various points of view and organization (perspective), and symbols. For example, a painter perceives that a particular white wall has different intensity at each point, due to shades and reflections from nearby objects, but ideally, a white wall is still a white wall in pitch darkness. In technical drawing, thickness of line is also ideal, demarcating ideal outlines of an object within a perceptual frame different from the one used by painters.

[edit] Color and tone

Color and tone are the essence of painting as pitch and rhythm are of music. Color is highly subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West, but in the East, white is. Some painters, theoreticians, writers and scientists, including Goethe, Kandinsky, and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover the use of language is only a generalization for a color equivalent. The word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations on the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as C or C♯ in music. For a painter, color is not simply divided into basic and derived (complementary or mixed) colors (like red, blue, green, brown, etc.).
Painters deal practically with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phtalocyan, Paris blue, indigo, cobalt, ultramarine, and so on. Psychological, symbolical meanings of color are not strictly speaking means of painting. Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, and because of this the perception of a painting is highly subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music (like "C") is analogous to light in painting, "shades" to dynamics, and coloration is to painting as specific timbre of musical instruments to music—though these do not necessarily form a melody, but can add different contexts to it.

Georges Seurat (1859–91), Circus Sideshow (1887–88)

[edit] Rhythm

Rhythm is important in painting as well as in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence", then there can be rhythm in paintings. These pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, melody, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art and it directly affects the esthetical value of that work. This is because the esthetical value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom (of movement) of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the esthetical value.

[edit] Non-traditional elements

Modern artists have extended the practice of painting considerably to include, for example, collage, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense. Some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, cement, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Jean Dubuffet and Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to paint color onto a digital canvas using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, and many others. These images can be printed onto traditional canvas if required.

[edit] History


Cave painting of aurochs, (Bos primigenius primigenius), Lascaux, France, prehistoric art
The oldest known paintings are at the Grotte Chauvet in France, claimed by some historians to be about 32,000 years old. They are engraved and painted using red ochre and black pigment and show horses, rhinoceros, lions, buffalo, mammoth or humans often hunting. However the earliest evidence of painting has been discovered in two rock-shelters in Arnhem Land, in northern Australia. In the lowest layer of material at these sites there are used pieces of ochre estimated to be 60,000 years old. Archaeologists have also found a fragment of rock painting preserved in a limestone rock-shelter in the Kimberley region of North-Western Australia, that is dated 40 000 years old. [1] There are examples of cave paintings all over the world—in India, France, Spain, Portugal, China, Australia, etc.
In Western cultures oil painting and watercolor painting have rich and complex traditions in style and subject matter. In the East, ink and color ink historically predominated the choice of media with equally rich and complex traditions.
The invention of photography had a major impact on painting. In 1829, the first photograph was produced. From the mid to late 19th century, photographic processes improved and, as it became more widespread, painting lost much of its historic purpose to provide an accurate record of the observable world. There began a series of art movements into the 20th century where the Renaissance view of the world was steadily eroded, through Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Fauvism, Expressionism, Cubism and Dadaism. Eastern and African painting, however, continued a long history of stylization and did not undergo an equivalent transformation at the same time.
Modern and Contemporary Art has moved away from the historic value of craft and documentation in favour of concept; this led some to say in the 1960s that painting, as a serious art form, is dead. This has not deterred the majority of living painters from continuing to practice painting either as whole or part of their work. The vitality and versatility of painting in the 21st century belies the premature declarations of its demise. In an epoch characterized by the idea of pluralism, there is no consensus as to a representative style of the age. Important works of art continue to be made in a wide variety of styles and aesthetic temperaments, the marketplace being left to judge merit.
Among the continuing and current directions in painting at the beginning of the 21st century are Monochrome painting, Hard-edge painting, Geometric abstraction, Appropriation, Hyperrealism, Photorealism, Expressionism, Minimalism, Lyrical Abstraction, Pop Art, Op Art, Abstract Expressionism, Color Field painting, Neo-expressionism, Collage, Intermedia painting, Assemblage painting, Computer art painting, Postmodern painting, Neo-Dada painting, Shaped canvas painting, environmental mural painting, traditional figure painting, Landscape painting, Portrait painting, and paint-on-glass animation.

[edit] Aesthetics and theory


Apelles or the Art of painting (detail), relief of the Giotto's Bell Tower in Florence, Italy, Nino Pisano, 1334–1336
Aesthetics is the study of art and beauty; it was an important issue for such 18th and 19th century philosophers as Kant or Hegel. Classical philosophers like Plato and Aristotle also theorized about art and painting in particular; Plato disregarded painters (as well as sculptors) in his philosophical system; he maintained that painting cannot depict the truth—it is a copy of reality (a shadow of the world of ideas) and is nothing but a craft, similar to shoemaking or iron casting. By the time of Leonardo painting had become a closer representation of the truth than painting was in Ancient Greece. Leonardo da Vinci, on the contrary, said that "Pittura est cousa mentale" (painting is a thing of the mind). Kant distinguished between Beauty and the Sublime, in terms that clearly gave priority to the former. Although he did not refer particularly to painting, this concept was taken up by painters such as Turner and Caspar David Friedrich.
Hegel recognized the failure of attaining a universal concept of beauty and in his aesthetic essay wrote that Painting is one of the three "romantic" arts, along with Poetry and Music for its symbolic, highly intellectual purpose.[2][3] Painters who have written theoretical works on painting include Kandinsky and Paul Klee.[4][5] Kandinsky in his essay maintains that painting has a spiritual value, and he attaches primary colors to essential feelings or concepts, something that Goethe and other writers had already tried to do.
Iconography is the study of the content of paintings, rather than their style. Erwin Panofsky and other art historians first seek to understand the things depicted, then their meaning for the viewer at the time, and then analyze their wider cultural, religious, and social meaning.
In 1890, the Parisian painter Maurice Denis famously asserted: "Remember that a painting—before being a warhorse, a naked woman or some story or other—is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."[6] Thus, many 20th-century developments in painting, such as Cubism, were reflections on the means of painting rather than on the external world, nature, which had previously been its core subject. Recent contributions to thinking about painting has been offered by the painter and writer Julian Bell. In his book What is Painting?, Bell discusses the development, through history, of the notion that paintings can express feelings and ideas.[7] In Mirror of The World Bell writes:
‘A work of art seeks to hold your attention and keep it fixed: a history of art urges it onwards, bulldozing a highway through the homes of the imagination.’[8]

[edit] Painting media


Honoré Daumier (1808–79), The Painter.
Different types of paint are usually identified by the medium that the pigment is suspended or embedded in, which determines the general working characteristics of the paint, such as viscosity, miscibility, solubility, drying time, etc.

[edit] Oil

Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments that are bound with a medium of drying oil—especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. Often an oil such as linseed was boiled with a resin such as pine resin or even frankincense; these were called 'varnishes' and were prized for their body and gloss. Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. The transition began with Early Netherlandish painting in northern Europe, and by the height of the Renaissance oil painting techniques had almost completely replaced tempera paints in the majority of Europe.

[edit] Pastel

Pastel is a painting medium in the form of a stick, consisting of pure powdered pigment and a binder.[9] The pigments used in pastels are the same as those used to produce all colored art media, including oil paints; the binder is of a neutral hue and low saturation. The color effect of pastels is closer to the natural dry pigments than that of any other process.[10] Because the surface of a pastel painting is fragile and easily smudged, its preservation requires protective measures such as framing under glass; it may also be sprayed with a fixative. Nonetheless, when made with permanent pigments and properly cared for, a pastel painting may endure unchanged for centuries. Pastels are not susceptible, as are paintings made with a fluid medium, to the cracking and discoloration that result from changes in the color, opacity, or dimensions of the medium as it dries.

[edit] Acrylic

Acrylic paint is fast drying paint containing pigment suspension in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints can be diluted with water, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted (with water) or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media. The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over underpaintings. This slow drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but in other regards it impedes the artist trying to work quickly.

[edit] Watercolor

Watercolor is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water soluble vehicle. The traditional and most common support for watercolor paintings is paper; other supports include papyrus, bark papers, plastics, vellum or leather, fabric, wood, and canvas. In East Asia, watercolor painting with inks is referred to as brush painting or scroll painting. In Chinese, Korean, and Japanese painting it has been the dominant medium, often in monochrome black or browns. India, Ethiopia and other countries also have long traditions. Fingerpainting with watercolor paints originated in China.

[edit] Ink

Ink paintings are done with a liquid that contains pigments and/or dyes and is used to color a surface to produce an image, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing with a pen, brush, or quill. Ink can be a complex medium, composed of solvents, pigments, dyes, resins, lubricants, solubilizers, surfactants, particulate matter, fluorescers, and other materials. The components of inks serve many purposes; the ink’s carrier, colorants, and other additives control flow and thickness of the ink and its appearance when dry.

[edit] Hot wax

Encaustic painting, also known as hot wax painting, involves using heated beeswax to which colored pigments are added. The liquid/paste is then applied to a surface—usually prepared wood, though canvas and other materials are often used. The simplest encaustic mixture can be made from adding pigments to beeswax, but there are several other recipes that can be used—some containing other types of waxes, damar resin, linseed oil, or other ingredients. Pure, powdered pigments can be purchased and used, though some mixtures use oil paints or other forms of pigment. Metal tools and special brushes can be used to shape the paint before it cools, or heated metal tools can be used to manipulate the wax once it has cooled onto the surface. Other materials can be encased or collaged into the surface, or layered, using the encaustic medium to adhere it to the surface.

Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas in a Ferapontov Monastery.

[edit] Fresco

Fresco is any of several related mural painting types, done on plaster on walls or ceilings. The word fresco comes from the Italian word affresco [afˈfresːko] which derives from the Latin word for "fresh". Frescoes were often made during the Renaissance and other early time periods. Buon fresco technique consists of painting in pigment mixed with water on a thin layer of wet, fresh, lime mortar or plaster, for which the Italian word for plaster, intonaco, is used. A secco painting, in contrast, is done on dry plaster (secco is "dry" in Italian). The pigments thus require a binding medium, such as egg (tempera), glue or oil to attach the pigment to the wall.

A Fresco "White Angel" from Mileševa, Serbia

[edit] Gouache

Gouache is a type of paint consisting of pigment suspended in water. Gouache differs from watercolor in that the particles are larger, the ratio of pigment to water is much higher, and an additional, inert, white pigment such as chalk is also present. Like all watermedia, it is diluted with water. This makes gouache heavier and more opaque, with greater reflective qualities.[11]

[edit] Enamel

Enamels are made by painting a substate, typically metal, with frit, a type of powdered glass. Minerals called color oxides provide coloration. After firing at a temperature of 750–850 degrees Celsius (1380–1560 degrees Fahrenheit), the result is a fused lamination of glass and metal. Enamels have traditionally been used for decoration of precious objects,[12] but have also been used for other purposes. In the 18th century, enamel painting enjoyed a vogue in Europe, especially as a medium for portrait miniatures.[13] In the late 20th century, the technique of porcelain enamel on metal has been used as a durable medium for outdoor murals.[14]

[edit] Spray paint

Aerosol paint (also called spray paint) is a type of paint that comes in a sealed pressurized container and is released in a fine spray mist when depressing a valve button. A form of spray painting, aerosol paint leaves a smooth, evenly coated surface. Standard sized cans are portable, inexpensive and easy to store. Aerosol primer can be applied directly to bare metal and many plastics.
Speed, portability and permanence also make aerosol paint a common graffiti medium. In the late 1970s, street graffiti writers' signatures and murals became more elaborate and a unique style developed as a factor of the aerosol medium and the speed required for illicit work. Many now recognize graffiti and street art as a unique art form and specifically manufactured aerosol paints are made for the graffiti artist. A stencil can be used to protect a surface except the specific shape that is to be painted. Stencils can be purchased as movable letters, ordered as professionally cut logos, or hand-cut by artists.

[edit] Tempera

Tempera, also known as egg tempera, is a permanent, fast-drying painting medium consisting of colored pigment mixed with a water-soluble binder medium (usually a glutinous material such as egg yolk or some other size). Tempera also refers to the paintings done in this medium. Tempera paintings are very long lasting, and examples from the first centuries AD still exist. Egg tempera was a primary method of painting until after 1500 when it was superseded by the invention of oil painting. A paint which is commonly called tempera (although it is not) consisting of pigment and glue size is commonly used and referred to by some manufacturers in America as poster paint.

[edit] Water miscible oil paint


The painter of the old harbor - Honfleur (France).
Water miscible oil paints (also called "water soluble" or "water-mixable") is a modern variety of oil paint which is engineered to be thinned and cleaned up with water, rather than having to use chemicals such as turpentine. It can be mixed and applied using the same techniques as traditional oil-based paint, but while still wet it can be effectively removed from brushes, palettes, and rags with ordinary soap and water. Its water solubility comes from the use of an oil medium in which one end of the molecule has been altered to bind loosely to water molecules, as in a solution.

[edit] Painting styles

Style is used in two senses: It can refer to the distinctive visual elements, techniques and methods that typify an individual artist's work. It can also refer to the movement or school that an artist is associated with. This can stem from an actual group that the artist was consciously involved with or it can be a category in which art historians have placed the painter. The word 'style' in the latter sense has fallen out of favor in academic discussions about contemporary painting, though it continues to be used in popular contexts. Such movements or classifications include the following:

[edit] Western

[edit] Modernism

Modernism describes both a set of cultural tendencies and an array of associated cultural movements, originally arising from wide-scale and far-reaching changes to Western society in the late 19th century and early 20th century. Modernism was a revolt against the conservative values of realism.[15][16][16] The term encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic, social and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A salient characteristic of modernism is self-consciousness. This often led to experiments with form, and work that draws attention to the processes and materials used (and to the further tendency of abstraction).[17]
[edit] Impressionism
The first example of modernism in painting was impressionism, a school of painting that initially focused on work done, not in studios, but outdoors (en plein air). Impressionist paintings demonstrated that human beings do not see objects, but instead see light itself. The school gathered adherents despite internal divisions among its leading practitioners, and became increasingly influential. Initially rejected from the most important commercial show of the time, the government-sponsored Paris Salon, the Impressionists organized yearly group exhibitions in commercial venues during the 1870s and 1880s, timing them to coincide with the official Salon. A significant event of 1863 was the Salon des Refusés, created by Emperor Napoleon III to display all of the paintings rejected by the Paris Salon. While most were in standard styles, but by inferior artists, the work of Manet attracted tremendous attention, and opened commercial doors to the movement.
[edit] Abstract styles
Abstract painting uses a visual language of form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.[18] Abstract expressionism was an American post-World War II art movement which had a combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism and the image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic.[19]
Action painting, sometimes called "gestural abstraction", is a style of painting in which paint is spontaneously dribbled, splashed or smeared onto the canvas, rather than being carefully applied.[20] The resulting work often emphasizes the physical act of painting itself as an essential aspect of the finished work or concern of its artist. The style was widespread from the 1940s until the early 1960s, and is closely associated with abstract expressionism (some critics have used the terms "action painting" and "abstract expressionism" interchangeably).
Other modernist styles include:

[edit] Other styles

[edit] Outsider art
The term outsider art was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut (French: [aʁ bʁyt], "raw art" or "rough art"), a label created by French artist Jean Dubuffet to describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by insane-asylum inmates.[21] Outsider art has emerged as a successful art marketing category (an annual Outsider Art Fair has taken place in New York since 1992). The term is sometimes misapplied as a catch-all marketing label for art created by people outside the mainstream "art world," regardless of their circumstances or the content of their work.
[edit] Photorealism
Photorealism is the genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s. As a full-fledged art movement, Photorealism evolved from Pop Art[22][23][24] and as a counter to Abstract Expressionism.
Hyperrealism is a genre of painting and sculpture resembling a high-resolution photograph. Hyperrealism is a fully fledged school of art and can be considered an advancement of Photorealism by the methods used to create the resulting paintings or sculptures. The term is primarily applied to an independent art movement and art style in the United States and Europe that has developed since the early 2000s.[25]
[edit] Surrealism
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. Surrealist artworks feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement.
Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities of World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy and social theory.

Other styles include:

[edit] Far eastern

[edit] Islamic/Persian / Near eastern

[edit] Indian

[edit] African

[edit] Contemporary Art

[edit] 1950s

[edit] 1960s

[edit] 1970s

[edit] 1980s

[edit] 1990s

[edit] 2000s

[edit] Idioms

Some painting idioms are described below.

[edit] Allegory

Allegory is a figurative mode of representation conveying meaning other than the literal. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation. Allegory is generally treated as a figure of rhetoric, but an allegory does not have to be expressed in language: it may be addressed to the eye, and is often found in realistic painting. An example of a simple visual allegory is the image of the grim reaper. Viewers understand that the image of the grim reaper is a symbolic representation of death.

[edit] Bodegón

In Spanish art, a bodegón is a still life painting depicting pantry items, such as victuals, game, and drink, often arranged on a simple stone slab, and also a painting with one or more figures, but significant still life elements, typically set in a kitchen or tavern. Starting in the Baroque period, such paintings became popular in Spain in the second quarter of the 17th century. The tradition of still life painting appears to have started and was far more popular in the contemporary Low Countries, today Belgium and Netherlands (then Flemish and Dutch artists), than it ever was in southern Europe. Northern still lifes had many sub-genre's; the breakfast piece was augmented by the trompe-l'œil, the flower bouquet , and the vanitas. In Spain there were much fewer patrons for this sort of thing, but a type of breakfast piece did become popular, featuring a few objects of food and tableware laid on a table.

Bodegón or Still Life with Pottery Jars, by Francisco de Zurbarán. 1636, Oil on canvas; 46 x 84 cm; Museo del Prado, Madrid

[edit] Body painting

Body painting is a form of body art. Unlike tattoo and other forms of body art, body painting is temporary, painted onto the human skin, and lasts for only several hours, or at most (in the case of Mehndi or "henna tattoo") a couple of weeks. Body painting that is limited to the face is known as face painting. Body painting is also referred to as (a form of) temporary tattoo; large scale or full-body painting is more commonly referred to as body painting, while smaller or more detailed work is generally referred to as temporary tattoos.

[edit] Figure painting

Figure painting is a form of the visual arts in which the artist uses a live model as the subject of a two-dimensional piece of artwork using paint as the medium. The live model can be either nude or partly or fully clothed and the painting is a representation of the full body of the model. It is analogous in most respects to figure drawing, which is usually done in crayon, ink, pencil, watercolor or mixed media on paper. Some artists well known for figure painting are Peter Paul Rubens, Edgar Degas, and Édouard Manet.

[edit] Illustration painting

Illustration paintings are those used as illustrations in books, magazines, and theater or movie posters and comic books. Today, there is a growing interest in collecting and admiring the original artwork. Various museum exhibitions, magazines and art galleries have devoted space to the illustrators of the past.In the visual art world, illustrators have sometimes been considered less important in comparison with fine artists and graphic designers. But as the result of computer game and comic industry growth, illustrations are becoming valued as popular and profitable art works that can acquire a wider market than the other two, especially in Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and USA.

[edit] Landscape painting

Landscape painting is a term that covers the depiction of natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, and especially art where the main subject is a wide view, with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is almost always included in the view, and weather is often an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, and develop when there is already a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects. The two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases.

[edit] Portrait painting

Portrait paintings are representations of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness, personality, and even the mood of the person. The art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and especially Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits, even unflattering ones. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, which is a painting of an unidentified woman.

[edit] Still life

A still life is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter, typically commonplace objects which may be either natural (food, flowers, plants, rocks, or shells) or man-made (drinking glasses, books, vases, jewelry, coins, pipes, and so on). With origins in the Middle Ages and Ancient Greek/Roman art, still life paintings give the artist more leeway in the arrangement of design elements within a composition than do paintings of other types of subjects such as landscape or portraiture. Still life paintings, particularly before 1700, often contained religious and allegorical symbolism relating to the objects depicted. Some modern still life breaks the two-dimensional barrier and employs three-dimensional mixed media, and uses found objects, photography, computer graphics, as well as video and sound.

[edit] Veduta

A Veduta is a highly detailed, usually large-scale painting of a cityscape or some other vista. This genre of landscape originated in Flanders, where artists such as Paul Brill painted vedute as early as the 16th century. As the itinerary of the Grand Tour became somewhat standardized, vedute of familiar scenes like the Roman Forum or the Grand Canal recalled early ventures to the Continent for aristocratic Englishmen. In the later 19th century, more personal "impressions" of cityscapes replaced the desire for topographical accuracy, which was satisfied instead by painted panoramas.

[edit] Common painting terms


A child painting in 1941.

[edit] See also


Kazimir Malevich, Black Square, 1913

[edit] References

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster Online
  2. ^ Craig, Edward. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Genealogy to Iqbal, page 278. Routledge, 1998.
  3. ^ "Painting and music are the specially romantic arts. Lastly, as a union of painting and music comes poetry, where the sensuous element is more than ever subordinate to the spirit." Excerpted from Encyclopedia Britannica 1911
  4. ^ Marcel Franciscono Paul Klee: His Work and Thought, part 6 'The Bauhaus and Düsseldorf', chap. 'Klee's theory courses', p. 246 and under 'notes to pages 245-54' p.365
  5. ^ Moshe Barasch (2000) Theories of art - from impressionism to Kandinsky, part IV 'Abstract art', chap. 'Color' pp.332-3
  6. ^ http://uk.encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563353/abstract_art.html Encyclopedia Encarta
  7. ^ Review by art historian David Cohen, artnet.com
  8. ^ London Review of Books, 29 November 2007.
  9. ^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 312.
  10. ^ Mayer, Ralph. The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques. Viking Adult; 5th revised and updated edition, 1991. ISBN 0-670-83701-6
  11. ^ Marjorie B. Cohn, Wash and Gouache, Fogg Museum, 1977.
  12. ^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 375.
  13. ^ McNally, Rika Smith, "Enamel", Oxford Art Online
  14. ^ Mayer, Ralph,The Artist's Handbook of Materials and Techniques, Third Edition, New York: Viking, 1970, p. 371.
  15. ^ John Barth (1979) The Literature of Replenishment, later republished in The Friday Book'(1984)'.
  16. ^ a b Gerald Graff (1975) Babbitt at the Abyss: The Social Context of Postmodern. American Fiction, TriQuarterly, No. 33 (Spring 1975), pp. 307-37; reprinted in Putz and Freese, eds., Postmodernism and American Literature.
  17. ^ Gardner, Helen, Horst De la Croix, Richard G. Tansey, and Diane Kirkpatrick. Gardner's Art Through the Ages (San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991). ISBN 0-15-503770-6. p. 953.
  18. ^ Rudolph Arnheim, Visual Thinking
  19. ^ Shapiro, David/Cecile (2000): Abstract Expressionism. The politics of apolitical painting. p. 189-190 In: Frascina, Francis (2000): Pollock and After. The critical debate. 2nd ed. London: Routledge
  20. ^ Boddy-Evans, Marion. "Art Glossary: Action Painting". About.com. http://painting.about.com/od/artglossarya/g/defactionpaint.htm. Retrieved 20 August 2006. 
  21. ^ Roger Cardinal, Outsider Art, London, 1972
  22. ^ Lindey, Christine Superrealist Painting and Sculpture, William Morrow and Company, New York, 1980, pp. 27-33.
  23. ^ Chase, Linda, Photorealism at the Millennium, The Not-So-Innocent Eye: Photorealism in Context. Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York, 2002. pp 14-15.
  24. ^ Nochlin, Linda, The Realist Criminal and the Abstract Law II, Art In America. 61 (November - December 1973), P. 98.
  25. ^ Bredekamp, Horst, Hyperrealism - One Step Beyond. Tate Museum, Publishers, UK. 2006. p. 1

[edit] Bibliography

[edit] Further reading

  • Daniel, H., (1971) "Encyclopedia of Themes and Subjects in Painting; Mythological, Biblical, Historical, Literary, Allegorical, and Topical". New York, Harry N. Abrams Inc.

Industrial painting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Industrial Painting is defined by the "Manifesto of Industrial Painting: For a unitary applied art"[1], a text by Giuseppe Pinot-Gallizio which was originally published in Notizie Arti Figurative No. 9 (1959). A French translation was soon published in Internationale Situationniste no.3 (1959). In May 1997, Molly Klein translated the original Italian version into English.
"The machine may very well be the appropriate instrument for the creation of an industrial-inflationist art, based on the Anti-Patent; the new industrial culture will be strictly "Made Amongst People" or not at all! The time of the Scribes is over."
"When thousands of painters who today labor at the non-sense of detail will have the possibilities which machines offer, there will be no more giant stamps, called paintings to satisfy the investment of value, but thousands of kilometers of fabric offered in the streets, in markets, for barter, allowing millions of people to enjoy them and exciting the experience of arrangement."

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links


Epoxy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener". Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including fiber-reinforced plastic materials and general purpose adhesives.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Chemistry


Structure of unmodified epoxy prepolymer resin. n denotes the number of polymerized subunits and is in the range from 0 to about 25

Structure of TETA, a typical hardener. The amine (NH) groups react with the epoxide groups of the resin during polymerization.
Epoxy is a copolymer; that is, it is formed from two different chemicals. These are referred to as the "resin" and the "hardener". The resin consists of monomers or short chain polymers with an epoxide group at either end. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A, though the latter may be replaced by similar chemicals. The hardener consists of polyamine monomers, for example Triethylenetetramine (TETA). When these compounds are mixed together, the amine groups react with the epoxide groups to form a covalent bond. Each NH group can react with an epoxide group, so that the resulting polymer is heavily crosslinked, and is thus rigid and strong.[1][2]
The process of polymerization is called "curing", and can be controlled through temperature, choice of resin and hardener compounds, and the ratio of said compounds; the process can take minutes to hours. Some formulations benefit from heating during the cure period, whereas others simply require time, and ambient temperatures.

[edit] History

The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin were made in 1927 in the United States. Credit for the first synthesis of bisphenol-A-based epoxy resins is shared by Dr. Pierre Castan of Switzerland and Dr. S.O. Greenlee of the United States in 1936. Dr. Castan's work was licensed by Ciba, Ltd. of Switzerland, which went on to become one of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide. Ciba's epoxy business was spun off and later sold in the late 1990s and is now the advanced materials business unit of Huntsman Corporation of the United States. Dr. Greenlee's work was for the firm of Devoe-Reynolds of the United States. Devoe-Reynolds, which was active in the early days of the epoxy resin industry, was sold to Shell Chemical (now Hexion, formerly Resolution Polymers and others).

[edit] Applications

The applications for epoxy-based materials are extensive and include coatings, adhesives and composite materials such as those using carbon fiber and fiberglass reinforcements (although polyester, vinyl ester, and other thermosetting resins are also used for glass-reinforced plastic). The chemistry of epoxies and the range of commercially available variations allows cure polymers to be produced with a very broad range of properties. In general, epoxies are known for their excellent adhesion, chemical and heat resistance, good-to-excellent mechanical properties and very good electrical insulating properties. Many properties of epoxies can be modified (for example silver-filled epoxies with good electrical conductivity are available, although epoxies are typically electrically insulating). Variations offering high thermal insulation, or thermal conductivity combined with high electrical resistance for electronics applications, are available.[3]

[edit] Paints and coatings

Two part epoxy coatings were developed for heavy duty service on metal substrates and use less energy than heat-cured powder coatings. These systems use a 4:1 by volume mixing ratio, and dry quickly providing a tough, protective coating with excellent hardness. Their low volatility and water clean up makes them useful for factory cast iron, cast steel, cast aluminum applications and reduces exposure and flammability issues associated with solvent-borne coatings. They are usually used in industrial and automotive applications since they are more heat resistant than latex-based and alkyd-based paints. Epoxy paints tend to deteriorate, known as chalk out, due to UV exposure.
Polyester epoxies are used as powder coatings for washers, driers and other "white goods". Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings (FBE) are extensively used for corrosion protection of steel pipes and fittings used in the oil and gas industry, potable water transmission pipelines (steel), concrete reinforcing rebar, et cetera. Epoxy coatings are also widely used as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and marine paints especially on metal surfaces where corrosion (rusting) resistance is important. Metal cans and containers are often coated with epoxy to prevent rusting, especially for foods like tomatoes that are acidic. Epoxy resins are also used for high performance and decorative flooring applications especially terrazzo flooring, chip flooring[4] and colored aggregate flooring.[5]

[edit] Adhesives


Special epoxy is strong enough to withstand the forces between a surfboard fin and the fin mount. This epoxy is waterproof and capable of curing underwater. The blue-coloured epoxy on the left is still undergoing curing.
Epoxy adhesives are a major part of the class of adhesives called "structural adhesives" or "engineering adhesives" (that includes polyurethane, acrylic, cyanoacrylate, and other chemistries.) These high-performance adhesives are used in the construction of aircraft, automobiles, bicycles, boats, golf clubs, skis, snowboards, and other applications where high strength bonds are required. Epoxy adhesives can be developed to suit almost any application. They can be used as adhesives for wood, metal, glass, stone, and some plastics. They can be made flexible or rigid, transparent or opaque/colored, fast setting or slow setting. Epoxy adhesives are better in heat and chemical resistance than other common adhesives. In general, epoxy adhesives cured with heat will be more heat- and chemical-resistant than those cured at room temperature. The strength of epoxy adhesives is degraded at temperatures above 350 °F (177 °C).[6]
Some epoxies are cured by exposure to ultraviolet light. Such epoxies are commonly used in optics, fiber optics, optoelectronics, and dentistry.[citation needed]

[edit] Industrial tooling and composites

Epoxy systems are used in industrial tooling applications to produce molds, master models, laminates, castings, fixtures, and other industrial production aids. This "plastic tooling" replaces metal, wood and other traditional materials, and generally improves the efficiency and either lowers the overall cost or shortens the lead-time for many industrial processes. Epoxies are also used in producing fiber-reinforced or composite parts. They are more expensive than polyester resins and vinyl ester resins, but usually produce stronger and more temperature-resistant composite parts.

[edit] Electrical systems and electronics


An epoxy encapsulated hybrid circuit on a printed circuit board.
Epoxy resin formulations are important in the electronics industry, and are employed in motors, generators, transformers, switchgear, bushings, and insulators. Epoxy resins are excellent electrical insulators and protect electrical components from short circuiting, dust and moisture. In the electronics industry epoxy resins are the primary resin used in overmolding integrated circuits, transistors and hybrid circuits, and making printed circuit boards. The largest volume type of circuit board—an "FR-4 board"—is a sandwich of layers of glass cloth bonded into a composite by an epoxy resin. Epoxy resins are used to bond copper foil to circuit board substrates, and are a component of the solder mask on many circuit boards.
Flexible epoxy resins are used for potting transformers and inductors. By using vacuum impregnation on uncured epoxy, winding-to-winding, winding-to-core, and winding-to-insulator air voids are eliminated. The cured epoxy is an electrical insulator and a much better conductor of heat than air. Transformer and inductor hot spots are greatly reduced, giving the component a stable and longer life than unpotted product.
Epoxy resins are applied using the technology of resin dispensing.

[edit] Consumer and marine applications

Epoxies are sold in hardware stores, typically as a pack containing separate resin and hardener, which must be mixed immediately before use. They are also sold in boat shops as repair resins for marine applications. Epoxies typically are not used in the outer layer of a boat because they deteriorate by exposure to UV light. They are often used during boat repair and assembly, and then over-coated with conventional or two-part polyurethane paint or marine-varnishes that provide UV protection.
There are two main areas of marine use. Because of the better mechanical properties relative to the more common polyester resins, epoxies are used for commercial manufacture of components where a high strength/weight ratio is required. The second area is that their strength, gap filling properties and excellent adhesion to many materials including timber have created a boom in amateur building projects including aircraft and boats.
Normal gelcoat formulated for use with polyester resins and vinylester resins does not adhere to epoxy surfaces, though epoxy adheres very well if applied to polyester resin surfaces. "Flocoat" that is normally used to coat the interior of polyester fibreglass yachts is also compatible with epoxies.
Epoxy materials tend to harden somewhat more gradually, while polyester materials tend to harden quickly, particularly if a lot of catalyst is used. The chemical reactions in both cases are exothermic. Large quantities of mix will generate their own heat and greatly speed the reaction, so it is usual to mix small amounts which can be used quickly.
While it is common to associate polyester resins and epoxy resins, their properties are sufficiently different that they are properly treated as distinct materials. Polyester resins are typically low strength unless used with a reinforcing material like glass fibre, are relatively brittle unless reinforced, and have low adhesion. Epoxies, by contrast, are inherently strong, somewhat flexible and have excellent adhesion. However, polyester resins are much cheaper.
Epoxy resins typically require a precise mix of two components which form a third chemical. Depending on the properties required, the ratio may be anything from 1:1 or over 10:1, but in every case they must be mixed exactly. The final product is then a precise thermo-setting plastic. Until they are mixed the two elements are relatively inert, although the 'hardeners' tend to be more chemically active and should be protected from the atmosphere and moisture. The rate of the reaction can be changed by using different hardeners, which may change the nature of the final product, or by controlling the temperature.
By contrast, polyester resins are usually made available in a 'promoted' form, such that the progress of previously-mixed resins from liquid to solid is already underway, albeit very slowly. The only variable available to the user is to change the rate of this process using a catalyst, often Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone-Peroxide (MEKP), which is very toxic. The presence of the catalyst in the final product actually detracts from the desirable properties, so that small amounts of catalyst are preferable, so long as the hardening proceeds at an acceptable pace. The rate of cure of polyesters can therefore be controlled both by the amount of catalyst and by the temperature.
As adhesives, epoxies bond in three ways: a) Mechanically, because the bonding surfaces are roughened; b) By proximity, because the cured resins are physically so close to the bonding surfaces that they are hard to separate; c) Ionically, because the epoxy resins form ionic bonds at an atomic level with the bonding surfaces. This last is substantially the strongest of the three. By contrast, polyester resins can only bond using the first two of these, which greatly reduces their utility as adhesives and in marine repair.

[edit] Aerospace applications

In the aerospace industry, epoxy is used as a structural matrix material which is then reinforced by fiber. Typical fiber reinforcements include glass, carbon, Kevlar, and boron. Epoxies are also used as a structural glue. Materials like wood, and others that are 'low-tech' are glued with epoxy resin.

[edit] Art

Epoxy resin, mixed with pigment, is used as a painting medium, by pouring layers on top of each other to form a complete picture.[7]

[edit] Wind Energy applications

Epoxy resin is used in manufacturing the rotor blades of wind turbines. The resin is infused in the core materials, such as balsa wood or foam, and the reinforcing media, such as fabric, glass fibre or carbon fibre. The process is called VARTM, i.e. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding. Due to excellent properties and good finish, epoxy is the most favoured resin for composites.

[edit] Industry

As of 2006, the epoxy industry amounts to more than US$5 billion in North America and about US$15 billion worldwide. The Chinese market has been growing rapidly, and accounts for more than 30% of the total worldwide market. It is made up of approximately 50–100 manufacturers of basic or commodity epoxy resins and hardeners of which the three largest are Hexion (formerly Resolution Performance Products, formerly Shell Development Company; whose epoxy tradename is "Epon"), the Dow Chemical Company (tradename "D.E.R."), and Huntsman Corporation's Advanced Materials business unit (formerly Vantico, formerly Ciba Specialty Chemical; tradename "Araldite"). In 2007 Huntsman Corporation agreed to merge with Hexion (owned by the Apollo Group).[8][9] KUKDO Chemical is one of the largest epoxy manufacturers in Asia, and recently their capacity has been increased up to 210,000 MT/Y (Korea 150,000 MT/Y, China 60,000 MT/Y and will be increased totally 300,000 MT/Y by 2009). Nanya Plastic also has the capacity of over 250,000 MT/Y (Taiwan and China), which is mostly for captive use. There are over 50 smaller epoxy manufacturers primarily producing epoxies only regionally, epoxy hardeners only, specialty epoxies, or epoxy modifiers.
These commodity epoxy manufacturers mentioned above typically do not sell epoxy resins in a form usable to smaller end users, so there is another group of companies that purchase epoxy raw materials from the major producers and then compounds (blends, modifies, or otherwise customizes) epoxy systems from these raw materials. These companies are known as "formulators". The majority of the epoxy systems sold are produced by these formulators and they comprise over 60% of the dollar value of the epoxy market. There are hundreds of ways that these formulators can modify epoxies—by adding mineral fillers (talc, silica, alumina, etc.), by adding flexibilizers, viscosity reducers, colorants, thickeners, accelerators, adhesion promoters, etc.. These modifications are made to reduce costs, to improve performance, and to improve processing convenience. As a result a typical formulator sells dozens or even thousands of formulations—each tailored to the requirements of a particular application or market.
Impacted by the global economic slump, the epoxy market size declined to $15.8 billion in 2009, almost to the level of 2005. In some regional markets it even decreased nearly 20%. The current epoxy market is experiencing positive growth as the global economy revives. With an annual growth rate of 3.5 - 4% the epoxy market is expected to reach $17.7 billion by 2012 and $21.35 by 2015. Higher growth rate is foreseen thereafter due to stronger demands from epoxy composite market and epoxy adhesive market.[10]

[edit] Health risks

The primary risk associated with epoxy use is sensitization to the hardener, which, over time, can induce an allergic reaction. It is a main source of occupational asthma among users of plastics.[11] Bisphenol A, which is used in epoxy resin, is a known endocrine disruptor.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Epoxy Chemistry". http://www.csuchico.edu/~jpgreene/m247/m247_ch02/sld023.htm. 
  2. ^ "Epoxy Polymers". http://chem.chem.rochester.edu/~chem424/epoxy.htm. 
  3. ^ May, Clayton A. (1987-12-23). Epoxy Resins: Chemistry and Technology (Second ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. p. 794. ISBN 0824776909. 
  4. ^ Norm Lambert. "Chips Flooring". Epoxy.com. http://www.epoxy.com/chip.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  5. ^ Norman L. Lambert. "Quartz Flooring". Epoxy.com. http://www.epoxy.com/15.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  6. ^ Morena, John J (1988). Advanced Composite Mold Making. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc. pp. 124–125. ISBN 9780442264147. 
  7. ^ McCreight, Tim; Bsullak, Nicole. Color on Metal: 50 Artists Share Insights and Techniques. Madison, WI: Guild. p. 74. ISBN 1893164063. 
  8. ^ Steve Gelsi, "Huntsman OK's $10.6 bln takeover offer from Apollo's Hexion", Market Watch, July 12, 2007.
  9. ^ Market Participant, "Hexion IPO Creates Way Too Much Debt", June 22, 2006.
  10. ^ "Market Report: World Epoxy Resin Market". Acmite Market Intelligence. http://www.acmite.com/market-reports/chemicals/world-epoxy-resin-market.html. 
  11. ^ MayoClinic --> Occupational asthma May 23, 2009

[edit] External links


Drywall

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Example of drywall with joint compound, the common interior building material. (This photo shows drywall hung vertically.)
Drywall, also known as plasterboard or gypsum board, is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. It is used to make interior walls and ceilings.
Plasterboard panels are also known as wallboard (USA, UK, Ireland),[citation needed] Gibraltar board or GIB wall and ceiling linings (in New Zealand, trademark of Winstone Wallboards[1]), rock lath,[2] Sheetrock (a trademark of USG Corporation), Gyproc (in Australia, a trademark of Compagnie de Saint-Gobain).
The sheets of the drywall can be made from fiberglass instead of paper to prevent mold growth. Mold growth is common when using paper-based plasterboard that has been exposed to water due to plumbing leaks or floods.
Drywall construction became prevalent as a speedier alternative to using plaster-based interior finish techniques, which involved forcefully spreading a substrate of coarse plaster, known as the base (made up of the scratch coat and (optional) brown coat), onto the wall's lath-work before finally applying the smoother finish coat, each layer added in succession and all by hand (see lath and plaster).[3] Drywall, by contrast to plaster, requires hand finishing only at the fasteners and joints. The drywall process requires less labor and drying time, lending its name to the panels used in the assembly.[citation needed]

Contents

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[edit] History

"Sackett Board" was invented in 1894 by Augustine Sackett. It was made by layering plaster within four plies of wool felt paper. Sheets were 36" x 36" x 1/4" thick with open (untaped) edges."[4]
"Gypsum Board" evolved between 1910 and 1930 beginning with wrapped board edges, and elimination of the two inner layers of felt paper in favor of paper-based facings. Providing efficiency of installation, it was developed additionally as a measure of fire resistance. [5] Later air entrainment technology made boards lighter and less brittle, then joint treatment materials and systems also evolved. "[4]
"Rock Lath" was an early substrate for plaster. An alternative to traditional wood or metal lath, it was a panel made up of compressed gypsum plaster board that was sometimes grooved or punched with holes to allow wet plaster to key into its surface. As it evolved, it was faced with paper impregnated with gypsum crystals that bonded with the applied facing layer of plaster.[2]

[edit] Manufacture

A wallboard panel is made of a paper liner wrapped around an inner core made primarily from gypsum plaster. The raw gypsum, CaSO4·2 H2O, (mined or obtained from flue gas desulfurization (FGD)) must be calcined before use to produce the hemihydrate of calcium sulfate (CaSO4·½ H2O). This is done in kettle or flash calciners, typically using natural gas today. The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper and/or fiberglass), plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, various additives that may increase mildew and/or fire resistance (fiberglass or vermiculite), wax emulsion or silanes for lower water absorption and water. This is then formed by sandwiching a core of wet gypsum between two sheets of heavy paper or fiberglass mats. When the core sets and is dried in a large drying chamber, the sandwich becomes rigid and strong enough for use as a building material.
Drying chambers typically use natural gas today. To dry 1 MSF (1,000 square feet) of wallboard, between 1.75 and 2.49 million BTU is required. Organic dispersants/plasticisers are used mainly to reduce the amount of water, hence reduce the eventual drying time, needed to produce gypsum slurry flow during wallboard manufacture.[6]

[edit] Specifications

[edit] USA and Canada

Drywall panels are manufactured in 48 inches (120 cm) wide panels in varying lengths to suit the application. Common panel thicknesses are 1/2" (13 mm) and 5/8" (16 mm), with panels also available in 1/4" (6 mm) and 3/8" (10 mm). Both 1/2" (13 mm) and 5/8" (16 mm) panels of TYPE 'X' (a gypsum board with special core additives to increase the natural fire resistance of regular gypsum board[7]) are used where a fire-resistance rating is desired. Regular 5/8" (16 mm) panels are used (with or without light gauge resilient metal channels) where additional mass is needed for the reduction of sound transmission.[citation needed]
Drywall provides a thermal resistance R-value (in US units) of 0.32 for 3/8" board, 0.45 for 1/2", 0.56 for 5/8", and 0.83 for 1" board. In addition to increased R-value, thicker drywall has a higher sound transmission class.[citation needed]

[edit] Europe

In the UK and Europe, plasterboard is manufactured in metric sizes, with the common sizes being corollaries of old imperial sizes.
Most plasterboard is made in 120 cm wide sheets, though 90 cm and 60 cm wide sheets are also made. 120 cm wide plasterboard is most commonly made in 240 cm lengths, though 270 cm and 300 cm length sheets are also commonly available.
Commonly used thicknesses of plasterboard available are 12.5 mm (modern equivalent of half an inch), typically used for walls, and 9.5 mm (modern equivalent of three-eights of an inch), typically used for ceilings. 15 mm thick board is commonly available, and other thicknesses are also produced.[citation needed]
Plasterboard is commonly made with one of two different edge treatments—tapered edge, where the long edges of the board are tapered with a wide bevel at the front to allow for jointing materials to be finished flush with the main board face, and plain edge, used where the whole surface will receive a thin coating (skim coat) of finishing plaster.

[edit] Construction techniques


Drywall is delivered to a building site on a flatbed truck and unloaded with a forked material handler crane. The bulk drywall sheets are unloaded directly to upper floors via a window or exterior doorway.
As opposed to a week-long plaster application, an entire house can be drywalled in one or two days by two experienced drywallers, and drywall is easy enough to use that it can be installed by many amateur home carpenters. In large-scale commercial construction, the work of installing and finishing drywall is often split between the drywall mechanics, or hangers, who install the wallboard, and the tapers and mudmen, or float crew, who finish the joints and cover the nailheads with drywall compound.[citation needed]
Drywall is cut to size, using a large T-square, by scoring the paper on the front side (usually white) with a utility knife, breaking the sheet along the cut, scoring the paper backing, and finally breaking the sheet in the opposite direction. Small features such as holes for outlets and light switches are usually cut using a keyhole saw or a small high-speed bit in a rotary tool. Drywall is then fixed to the wall structure with nails, glue, or more commonly in recent years, the now-ubiquitous drywall screws.
Drywall fasteners, also referred to as drywall clips or stops, are gaining popularity in both residential and commercial construction. Drywall fasteners are used for supporting interior drywall corners and replacing the non-structural wood or metal blocking that traditionally was used to install drywall. Their function serves to save on material and labour expenses; to minimize call backs due to truss uplift; to increase energy efficiency; and to make plumbing and electrical installation simpler.

Drywall screws are designed to be self-tapping.
Drywall screws heads have a curved taper, allowing them to self-pilot and install rapidly without punching through the paper cover. These screws are set slightly into the drywall. When drywall is hung on wood framing, screws having an acute point and widely spaced threads are used. When drywall is hung on light-gauge steel framing, screws having an acute point and finely spaced threads are used. If the steel framing is heavier than 20-gauge, self-tapping screws with finely spaced threads must be used. In some applications, the drywall may be attached to the wall with adhesives.

Electric screw gun used to drive drywall screws
After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceiling joists, the seams between drywall sheets are concealed using joint tape and several layers of joint compound (sometimes called mud). This compound is also applied to any screw holes or defects. The compound is allowed to air dry then typically sanded smooth before painting. Alternatively, for a better finish, the entire wall may be given a skim coat, a thin layer (about 1 mm or 1/16 inch) of finishing compound, to minimize the visual differences between the paper and mudded areas after painting.
Another similar skim coating is always done in a process called veneer plastering, although it is done slightly thicker (about 2 mm or 1/8 inch). Veneering uses a slightly different specialized setting compound ("finish plaster") that contains gypsum and lime putty. This application uses blueboard, which has special treated paper to accelerate the setting of the gypsum plaster component. This setting has far less shrinkage than the air-dry compounds normally used in drywall, so it only requires one coat. Blueboard also has square edges rather than the tapered-edge drywall boards. The tapered drywall boards are used to countersink the tape in taped jointing whereas the tape in veneer plastering is buried beneath a level surface. One coat veneer plaster over dry board is an intermediate style step between full multi-coat "wet" plaster and the limited joint-treatment-only given "dry" wall.

[edit] Water damage and mold


Drywall water damage in a closet.
Drywall is easily damaged by exposure to water. While it can be waterproofed through covalent waterproofing, if waterproofing is absent or if the waterproofing layer is punctured, water will cause drywall to swell and eventually disintegrate, requiring replacement. Drywall is a porous, lightweight substance that supports the growth of mold. It is for this reason that greenboard and cement board is used for rooms expected to have high humidity.

[edit] Fire resistance

When used as a component in fire barriers, drywall is a passive fire protection item. In its natural state, gypsum contains the water of crystallization bound in the form of hydrates. When exposed to heat or fire, this water is vapourised, retarding heat transfer. Therefore, a fire in one room that is separated from an adjacent room by a fire-resistance rated drywall assembly will not cause this adjacent room to get any warmer than the boiling point (100°C) until the water in the gypsum is gone. This makes drywall an ablative material because as the hydrates sublime, a crumbly dust is left behind, which, along with the paper, is sacrificial. Generally, the more layers of Type X drywall one adds, the more one increases the fire-resistance of the assembly, be it horizontal or vertical. Evidence of this can be found both in publicly available design catalogues, including, but not limited to DIN4102 Part 4 and the Canadian Building Code on the topic, as well as common certification listings, including but not limited to certification listings provided by Underwriters Laboratories and Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC). "Type X" drywall is formulated by adding glass fibers to the gypsum, to increase the resistance to fires, especially once the hydrates are spent, which leaves the gypsum in powder form. Type X is typically the material chosen to construct walls and ceilings that are required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Fire testing of drywall assemblies for the purpose of expanding national catalogues, such as the National Building Code of Canada, Germany's Part 4 of DIN4102 and its British cousin BS476, are a matter of routine research and development work in more than one nation and can be sponsored jointly by national authorities and representatives of the drywall industry. For example, the National Research Council of Canada routinely publishes such findings.[8] The results are printed as approved designs in the back of the building code. Generally, exposure of drywall on a panel furnace removes the water and calcines the exposed drywall and also heats the studs and fasteners holding the drywall. This typically results in deflection of the assembly towards the fire, as that is the location where the sublimation occurs, which weakens the assembly, due to the fire influence.
When tests are cosponsored, resulting in code recognized designs with assigned fire-resistance ratings, the resulting designs become part of the code and are not limited to use by any one manufacturer, provided the material used in the field configuration can be demonstrated to meet the minimum requirements of Type X drywall (such as an entry in the appropriate category of the UL Building Materials Directory) and that sufficient layers and thicknesses are used. Fire test reports for such unique third party tests are confidential.
Deflection of drywall assemblies is important to consider to maintain the integrity of drywall assemblies in order to preserve their ratings. The deflection of drywall assemblies can vary somewhat from one test to another. Importantly, penetrants do not follow the deflection movement of the drywall assemblies they penetrate. For example, see cable tray movement in a German test. It is, therefore, important to test firestops in full scale wall panel tests, so that the deflection of each applicable assembly can be taken into account. The size of the test wall assembly alone is not the only consideration for firestop tests. If the penetrants are mounted to and hung off the drywall assembly itself during the test, this does not constitute a realistic deflection exposure insofar as the firestop is concerned. In reality, on a construction site, penetrants are hung off the ceiling above. Penetrants may increase in length, push and pull as a result of operational temperature changes (e.g., hot and cold water in a pipe), particularly in a fire, but it is a physical impossibility to have the penetrants follow the movement of drywall assemblies that they penetrate, since they are not mounted to the drywalls in a building. It is, therefore, counterproductive to suspend penetrants from the drywall assembly during a fire test. As downward deflection of the drywall assembly and buckling towards the fire occurs, the top of the firestop is squeezed and the bottom of the firestop is pulled, and this is motion over and above that, which is caused by the expansion of metallic penetrants, due to heat exposure in a fire. Both types of motion occur in reality, because metal first expands in a fire and then softens once the critical temperature has been reached, as is explained under structural steel. To simulate the drywall deflection effect, one can simply mount the penetrants to the steel frame holding the test assembly. The operational and fire induced motion of the penetrants, which is independent of the assemblies penetrated, can be separately arranged.

[edit] North American market

North America is one of the largest gypsum board users in the world with a total wallboard plant capacity of 42 billion square feet per year (world wide 85 billion square feet per year).[9] Moreover, the home building and remodeling markets in North America have increased demand the last five years. The gypsum board market is one of the biggest beneficiaries of the housing boom as "an average new American home contains more than 7.31 metric tons of gypsum."[10]
The introduction in March 2005 of the Clean Air Interstate Rule by the United States Environmental Protection Agency requires power plants to "cut sulfur dioxide emissions by 73%" by 2018.[11] The Clean Air Interstate Rule also requested that the power plants install new scrubbers (industrial pollution control devices) to remove sulfur dioxide present in the output waste gas. Scrubbers use the technique of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which produces synthetic gypsum as a usable by-product. In response to the new supply of this raw material, the gypsum board market was predicted to shift significantly. However, issues such as mercury release during calcining need to be resolved.[12]

[edit] Waste

Because up to 17% of drywall is wasted during the manufacturing and installation processes[citation needed] and the drywall material is frequently not re-used, disposal can become a problem. Some landfill sites have banned the dumping of drywall. Some manufacturers take back waste wallboard from construction sites and recycle it into new wallboard. Recycled paper is typically used during manufacturing. More recently, recycling at the construction site itself is being investigated. There is potential for using crushed drywall to amend certain soils at building sites, such as sodic clay and silt mixtures (bay mud), as well as using it in compost.[13]

[edit] Types available in the USA and Canada

  • Regular white board, from 1/4" to 3/4" thickness
  • Fire-resistant ("Type X"), different thickness and multiple layers of wallboard provide increased fire rating based on the time a specific wall assembly can withstand a standardized fire test. Often perlite, vermiculite and boric acid are added to improve fire resistance.
  • Greenboard, the drywall that contains an oil-based additive in the green colored paper covering that provides moisture resistance. It is commonly used in washrooms and other areas expected to experience elevated levels of humidity.[citation needed]
  • Blueboard, blue face paper forms a strong bond with a skim coat or a built-up plaster finish providing both water and mold resistance.
  • Cement board, which is more water-resistant than greenboard, for use in showers or sauna rooms, and as a base for ceramic tile
  • Soundboard is made from wood fibers to increase the sound rating (STC)
  • Soundproof drywall is a laminated drywall made with gypsum, other materials, and damping polymers to significantly increase the STC[citation needed]
  • Mold-resistant, paperless drywall[citation needed]
  • Enviroboard, a board made from recycled agricultural materials
  • Lead-lined drywall, a drywall used around radiological equipment[citation needed]
  • Foil-backed drywall to control moisture in a building or room[citation needed]
  • Controlled density (CD), also called ceiling board, which is available only in 1/2" thickness and is significantly stiffer than regular white board.
  • EcoRock, a drywall which uses a combination of 20 materials including recycled fly ash, slag, kiln dust and fillers and no starch cellulose; it is advertised as being environmentally-friendly due to the use of recycled materials and an energy efficient process.[14]
  • Gypsum “Firecode C.” This board is similar in composition to Type X,except that it has more glass fibers,and, it has another ingredient in the gypsum core. This ingredient is a shrinkage-compensating additive, a form of vermiculite. When exposed to high heat, the gypsum core shrinks but the shrinkage-compensating element expands at about the same rate as shrinkage occurs in the water-depleted gypsum.
The gypsum core then is more stable in a fire and remains in place even after the combined water in the gypsum has been driven off.

[edit] Common drywall tools

[edit] Levels of finish

"In 1990, four major trade associations, the Association of Wall and Ceiling Industries International (AWCI), the Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA), the Gypsum Association (GA), and the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America (PDCA), presented the consensus document Levels of Gypsum Board Finish. The document was created to "precisely describe" the desired finish of walls and ceilings prior to final decoration. This precise description enables contractors to better understand the requirements of architects and building owners in order to enhance the satisfaction of the client. Specifications that include the Levels of Gypsum Board Finish also promote competitive bidding that allows the bidder to consider the correct labor and materials to finish the wall suitably for its final decoration." [15]
The official document (summarized below) is known as GA-214-96 "Recommended Levels of Gypsum Board Finish".

[edit] Level 0

No taping, finishing, or accessories required.
Usage: Temporary construction or when final decoration is undetermined.

[edit] Level 1

All joints and interior angles shall have tape set in joint compound. Surface shall be free of excess joint compound. Tool marks and ridges are acceptable.
Usage: Above false ceilings or other areas that are out of public view where a degree of fire and noise resistance is required.

[edit] Level 2

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and wiped with a joint knife leaving a thin coating of joint compound over all joints and interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with a coat of joint compound. Surface shall be free of excess joint compound. Tool marks and ridges are acceptable. Joint compound applied over the body of the tape at the time of tape embedment shall be considered a separate coat of joint compound and shall satisfy the conditions of this level.
Usage: As a substrate for tile walls and ceilings as well as in garages, warehouses, and other places where appearance is not a primary concern.

[edit] Level 3

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and one additional coat of joint compound applied over all joints and interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with two separate coats of joint compound. All joint compound shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of final finishes.
Usage: Suitable base for heavy-medium textured paint or other thick finishes.

[edit] Level 4

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and two separate coats of joint compound applied over all flat joints and one separate coat of joint compound applied over interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with three separate coats of joint compound. All joint compound shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of final finishes.
Usage: "Standard" household and office walls. Used with light or non-textured finishes. Not suitable for harsh lighting conditions, which may highlight minor imperfections

[edit] Level 5

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and two separate coats of joint compound applied over all flat joints and one separate coat of joint compound applied over interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with three separate coats of joint compound. A thin skim coat of joint compound, or a material manufactured especially for this purpose, shall be applied to the entire surface. The surface shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of finish paint. The skim coat is a final leveling agent suitable to smooth out a surface to be used under the harshest lighting conditions that may otherwise highlight any imperfections under the finished surface.
Usage: Gloss and entirely non-textured surfaces.

[edit] Defective Chinese imports

There are reports that a substantial amount of defective drywall was imported into the United States from China and incorporated into tens of thousands of homes during rebuilding in 2006 and 2007 following Hurricane Katrina and in other places. Complaints include foul odor, health effects, and corrosion of metal within the structure. The same drywall was sold in Asia without problems resulting, but U.S. homes built much more tightly than homes in China, with less ventilation. A number of lawsuits are underway in many jurisdictions, but many of the sheets of drywall are simply marked, "Made in China", thus making identification of the Chinese manufacturer difficult. An investigation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, CPSC, was underway in 2009.[16] In November 2009, the CPSC reported a "strong association" between Chinese drywall and corrosion of pipes and wires reported by thousands of homeowners in the United States. Further findings have shown that volatile sulfur compounds, including hydrogen sulfide, have been detected as emissions from the imported drywall and may be linked to health problems. Volatile sulfur compounds are emitted from many different types of drywall, and at least one investigation has pointed to high levels being emitted from drywalls manufactured in the United States.[17]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Carpentry

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942

Two German Carpenters working (1975)
A carpenter (builder) is a skilled craftsperson who performs carpentry, see also Joiner. Carpenters work with timber to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture, and other objects. The work may involve manual labor and work outdoors.[1]
Carpentry skill is gained through experience and study. Outside of unions, there are no formal training requirements (in the U.S.) and the trade can be easy to enter. In other countries, such as Germany, Japan and Canada there are strict standards.
The word "carpenter" is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier (become charpentier) which is derived from the Latin carpentrius [artifex], "(maker) of a carriage.[2] The Middle English and Scots word (in the sense of "builder") was wright (from the Old English wryhta), which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright.[3]
In United States carpenters are commonly referred to as "woodpeckers".In British slang, a carpenter is sometimes referred to as a "chippie". In Australia, they are often called "tradies". One of the German words for carpenter is "Zimmermann" from the Middle High German zimbermann (a compound of zimber, zim(m)er cf. English ‘timber’ + mann ‘man’), and hence is the source for the surname in German and English-speaking countries. Other woodworking names/professions, that also occur as a surname, are Tischler and Schreiner.
Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999.[4]

Contents

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[edit] Types and occupations

A finish carpenter (South America) also called a joiner (traditional name now obsolete in North America) is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. Some large-scale construction may be of an exactitude and artistry that it is classed as finish carpentry.

Traditional carpenter's tools
Ethnographic Museum of Western Liguria, Cervo, Italy
A trim carpenter specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window casings, mantels, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work. Cabinet installers may also be referred to as trim carpenters.
A cabinetmaker is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work, specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage.
A ship's carpenter specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and repair techniques (see also shipwright) and carpentry specific to nautical needs; usually the term refers to a carpenter who has a post on a specific ship. Steel warships as well as wooden ones need ship's carpenters, especially for making emergency repairs in the case of battle or storm damage.
A scenic carpenter in filmmaking, television, and the theater builds and dismantles temporary scenery and sets.
A framer is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or framework of buildings. Techniques include platform framing, balloon framing, or timber framing (which may be post-and-beam or mortise-and-tenon framing).

A carpenter and his mate prepare a door for installation in England (2009)
A luthier is someone who makes or repairs stringed instruments. The word luthier comes from the French word for lute, "luth".
A formwork carpenter creates the shuttering and falsework used in concrete construction.
In Japan, Miya-daiku (Temple carpenter) performs the works of both architect and builder of shrine and temple.
Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of environmentally friendly,energy-efficient and sustainable sources of building materials to use in construction projects.[5]

[edit] Training


Carpenters in an Indian village
Tradesmen in countries such as Germany are required to fulfil a formal apprenticeship (usually three years) to work as a professional carpenter. Upon graduation from the apprenticeship, he or she is known as a journeyman carpenter. Up through the 19th and even the early 20th century, the journeyman traveled to another region of the country to learn the building styles and techniques of that area before (usually) returning home. In modern times, journeymen are not required to travel, and the term refers more to a level of proficiency and skill. Union carpenters in the United States - United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America - are required to pass a skills test to be granted official journeyman status, but uncertified professional carpenters may be known as journeymen based on their skill level, years of experience, or simply because they support themselves in the trade, and not due to certification or formal woodworking education.
After working as a journeyman for a period, a carpenter may go to study or test as a master carpenter. In some countries, such as Germany or Japan, this is an arduous and expensive process, requiring extensive knowledge (including economic and legal knowledge) and skill to achieve master certification; these countries generally require master status for anyone employing and teaching apprentices in the craft. In others, it can be a loosely used term to describe a skilled carpenter.
In Canada, each province sets its own standards for apprenticeship. The average length of time is four years and includes a minimum number of hours of both on the job training and technical instruction at a college or other institution. Depending on the number of hours of instruction an apprentice receives, he or she can earn a Certificate of Proficiency, making them a journeyman, or a Certificate of Qualification, which allows them to practice a more limited amount of carpentry. Canadian carpenters also have the option of acquiring an additional Interprovincial Red Seal[1] that allows them to practice anywhere in Canada. The Red Seal requires the completion of an apprenticeship and an additional examination.
In the modern British construction industry, carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where GCSEs in Mathematics, English and Technology help, but are not essential. This is deemed as the preferred route as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification.
Fully trained carpenters and joiners will often move into related trades such as Shop fitting, frameworking, bench joinery, maintenance and system installation.

[edit] Notable carpenters










Religious figures
Historic figures

Contemporary

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Byron W. Maguire (1988). Carpentry in Commercial Construction. Craftsman Book Company. ISBN 0-934041-33-4. 
  2. ^ The American heritage dictionary of the English language - Etymology of the word "carpenter"
  3. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
  4. ^ "Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports, May 2004." (PDF). http://www.census.gov/prod/2004pubs/censr-15.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  5. ^ "Defining Green-Collar Jobs". http://www.uwex.edu/CES/cced/communities/documents/GreenCollar.pdf. "There is no consensus on how to define green-collar jobs. A very broad interpretation of green jobs would include all existing and new jobs that contribute to environmental quality through improved efficiencies, better resource management, and other technologies that successfully address the environmental challenges facing society. Probably the most concise, general definition is “well-paid, career track jobs that contribute directly to preserving or enhancing environmental quality” (Apollo Alliance 2008, 3). This definition suggests that green-collar jobs directly contribute to improving environmental quality, but would not include low-wage jobs that provide little mobility. Most discussion of green-collar jobs does not refer to positions that require a college degree, but they typically do involve training beyond high school. Many of the positions are similar to skilled, blue-collar jobs, such as electricians, welders, carpenters, etc." 

[edit] External links