One of Oakland Counties most prestigious painting company

Oakland County Painter (248) 787-0963

Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc is a local Oakland County Painting and Drywall Contractor  with over 15 years experience, located in the West Bloomfield, Oakland County Michigan area.  We provide our services to the Metro Detroit, Oakland County, Macomb County and Wayne County areas of Michigan. 

We provide quality residential, industrial and commercial interior and exterior painting, drywall installation, drywall finishing, drywall repairs along with other remodeling and restoration services
We simply offer quality workmanship at very competitive prices.  We can meet your timetable and financial requirements without sacrificing quality.

Oakland County Custom Interior Painting

We pride ourselves on attention to detail and custom quality work so you can rest assure that the ending results of anything we touch will be as good as gold!  If you're looking for reliable and quality workmanship in the South East region of Michigan, you just found a good Oakland County painting and drywall company.  248-787-0963  

• Premium Grade Coatings Used
• Thorough Surface Preparation
• Fully Insured
• Quality Guaranteed
For a free estimate and other services, please contact us at: 
(248) 787-0963

Painting can enhance the appearance of your home or workplace significantly, whether it is interior or exterior painting project you want to have done. We work with real estate agents and interior designers and all of them agree on one thing: PAINTING IS THE MOST COST EFFECTIVE UPGRADE OF YOUR HOME. There is nothing out there that will get you more return on your investment than simply painting your house. Professionally that is.  For free estimates (248) 787-0963

You can take a dull looking home with builder’s off whites, apply custom colors that will add character and bring new life to your house which will make it feel more inviting for you and your family. into a mansion that looks like a million bucks. At the same time it will increase the value and equity of your home.

That’s why many house owners that find selling their homes difficult will turn to a painter for help. And we can help! Not just with your home but with any painting project you may have. Our experience professional residential house painters will also determine the best possible application method for the specific project, including airless spray technology.

There is a common misconception that airless spray painting is inefficient and wastes paint. But there are a number of factors that dramatically change the outcome of such a method of application. Our team of experienced professional painters know how to use the industrial airless spray technology to maximize use of every gallon of paint.

This includes using the right pressure for the paint being sprayed and choosing the correct tip size for the specific work being performed to minimize over spray, therefore, less wasted paint and we are using straight paint (un-thinned). That results in having to spray fewer coats than if painted by roller or brush. Especially with a brush (which you have to thin so it spreads more evenly and brush marks are minimal, although not completely vanished) and that contributes to using about the same amount or in some instances even less paint than conventional methods of application, contradicting the common misconception.

Sprayed surfaces such as trim and doors tend to have a more uniform appearance that resembles the smooth surface of a fridge as opposed to surfaces that look like an orange peel (caused by roller) or brush marks (caused by brush). In any case, our interior exterior painters will help you with all of your painting needs in a courteous and timely manner.

Do you live around Oakland County Michigan or are you doing Business in the Oakland County area? Are you in need of a Reliable and Quality Oakland County Painter or Drywall Contractor?

Our team of Golden Touch tradesman and Oakland County Painters focus on individual service and attention to detail that produces dramatic results in a personal, professional and cost-effective manner. We take great pride in our ability to provide professional service and efficient completion of all our project needs.

Within the many years of experience that Golden Touch Painting and Drywall and our team of Oakland County Painters has had in the commercial, industrial and residential areas of interior and exterior painting, drywall hanging, drywall finishing, carpentry, and many other remodeling and restoration services in the Oakland County Michigan area, our team of precision quality Oakland County interior painters, exterior painters, drywall hangers, drywall finishers and carpenters can take care of almost any situation within these fields of operation! From a straightforward paint job to a complete renovation.

We have been contracted to paint, remodel or restore nearly every type of structure, be it a restaurant, an historic property, an apartment complex, a Home Owners Association, a custom home, a place of business, an entire commercial office complex or an industrial site, we've done it all. 

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc is a company who has worked hard to earn a reputation for our quality craftsmanship and we look forward to showing the residents of Oakland County Michigan that it is well deserved.
Let us help to keep the value of your 
home or place of business!

Oakland County Michigan's Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Company understands that your home or business can be one of your most valuable assets, so we strive to make the finished product something that helps retain its value for decades to come. Our friendly and respectful Oakland County Painter staff will treat your house or place of business like it was their own and our crews are trained to be responsive and hassle-free when dealing with clients. 

Our team of Oakland County painters and tradesman do our best to try to give you your privacy while we work and will be more than happy to thoroughly answer any questions you may have.

Our quotation process is simple, without convoluted processes and fees. Step by step, Golden touch Painting and Drywall experts of tradesman and Oakland County Painters will walk you through your home or place of business to understand the precise needs of each individual room for any interior remodeling questions and inspect every curve and nook on the outside for exterior work.  

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall's thorough and experienced Oakland County Painter, drywall or carpentry staff will make sure your home or businesses painting project, remodeling project or restoration project is complete, on-budget and on-time!

It is important for our companies team of tradesman and Oakland County Painters to build a strong relationship with you the communities, business owners, home owners and contractors which we serve. It's our goal to leave every customer satisfied, wanting to use us for many years to come and also recommend us to others.

Whether you're a perfectionist looking for the best quality custom work or a Realtor simply looking to quickly fix up a property, you can assure our Oakland County Painters or tradesman from Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc will provide the necessary services you need with golden results. We strive to be one of Oakland County's leading interior and exterior painting, drywall, and carpentry companies in Michigan.

Are you looking for Professionalism?  Are you Looking for a reliable Oakland County Painter?  Well you found it!

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall's team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters undergo thorough training in advanced painting, drywall and carpentry techniques and safety operations. Our staff has a positive and helpful approach towards answering customers’ questions and addressing your needs.

Attention to detail and custom finishes are our priorities. The most important part of a top-quality paint job is not just the painting, it is the preparation before paint is applied. Remember that paint is only as good as the surface it goes on. Our team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters take meticulous care in surface preparation and selection of outstanding surfacing materials and finishes in which we use, so you can trust any Oakland County Painter from us who is working on your job.

Believe it or not but carpentry, drywall and painting all deal with one another, each depending on the other to look there best, so when you have the best experts in each one of the field's putting together top quality work, you can bet on a A1 top notch quality job being performed, and that's what our team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters from Golden Touch Painting & Drywall Inc delivers to all of our customers.

Golden Touch Painting and Drywall and our team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters recognizes the importance of providing our services at times that are convenient and necessary to you. Therefore, we provide Oakland County painter crews on off-hours and weekends so our work will not interfere with your normal day-to-day operations and business.
For our tradesman or Oakland County Painter employees, we encourage the free exchange of ideas and provide opportunities for training, employment, career advancement, and economic security fairly and equally to all who would apply themselves, as well as to provide a safe working environment by establishing good safety practices in compliance with current federal, state and local laws.

Michigan's Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc. is a group of Oakland County painters, drywall and carpentry craftsman devoted to expanding painting, drywall and carpentry knowledge, and to preserve and beautify Oakland County Michigan and the surrounding areas.

Please do not get our team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters mixed up with your regular ordinary handyman service or other painting contractors in the Michigan area, because all of the individuals that work for Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc are professional and reliable craftsman, each specializing in there own field of operations with many years of experience under there belts. For instance, we have certain Oakland County painters who are more knowledgeable and experienced dealing with high end residential custom repaints, also we have other professional Oakland County painters who are more experienced with commercial painting aspects, others who are more experienced with interior painting in Oakland County, and others who are more experienced with exterior painting in Oakland County and the same goes for our Oakland County drywall crews and Oakland County carpentry crews.

So whatever your needs might be, you can rest assure that our team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters from Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc of West Bloomfield's Oakland County painters in Michigan will provide you with the best qualified professionals, performing the best quality work and craftsmanship available each in there own fields of operation.

Oakland County Michigan Specials:

15% off- complete repaints of Residential Exteriors to the first 20 customers to sign up this winter for the spring and summer 2012 season.
10% off- complete repaints of Residential interiors (Dec. – Apr.
Multiple room discounts, Realtor discounts
Referral bonuses
Preferred customer discounts

Do you live in the following Mi. cities and in need of a
Oakland County Painter?

Our team of qualified professional Tradesman and Oakland County Painters are happy to provide our Interior and Exterior Painting, drywall and carpentry services to all of these communities and cities in the Oakland County Michigan area.

Auburn Hills
Beverly Hills
Bingham Farms
Bloomfield Hills
Farmington Hills
Franklin Village
Hazel Park
Huntington Woods
Keego Harbor
Lake Angelus
Lake Orion
Lathrup Village
Lyon Township
Madison Heights
Oak Park
Orchard Lake
Pleasant Ridge
Rochester Hills
Rose Township
Royal Oak
South Lyon
Sylvan Lake
Walled Lake
West Bloomfield
White Lake
Wolverine Lake

48009 48017 48025 48030 48034 48067 48069 48070 48071 48072 48073 48075 48076 48083 48084 48098 48165 48178 48220 48237 48301 48302 48304 48306 48307 48309 48320 48322 48323 48324 48326 48327 48328 48329 48331 48334 48335 48336 48340 48341 48342 48346 48348 48350 48356 48357 48359 48360 48362 48363 48367 48370 48371 48374 48375 48377 48380 48381 48382 48383 48386 48390 48393 48442 48462

Why Should You Hire a Professional Oakland County Painter?
  • There’s Only So Many Hours in a Day: Where will you find the time to get the job done? This weekend? Next weekend? Next month? Doesn’t it always seem like something else (life!) seems to happen?   Doesn’t always seem like most home projects end up taking longer then what you thought they would?  There’s a wedding, there’s a ballgame, there’s a function at school, a deadline is looming at the office – you get the idea. You can tell yourself you will eventually get to it, but in the meantime, you could have contracted the paint job and had it completed.

  • It’s a Long Way to the Ground: In other words, when you fall off the ladder, it’s going to hurt. Golden Touches Oakland County Painters are not only skilled in their profession, but they are experienced with the equipment needed to get the job done. If your spouse comes home to find that you just ruined her bed of roses because you dropped the paint bucket from the second story … you’ll wished you would have thought of calling that painting company she had suggested earlier.

  • Keeps You Healthy: If your home is older than 1978, it may contain leaded paint. A professional Oakland County painter will take steps to ensure that you and your family will not be at risk when it comes time to removing old paint. There are also fumes and chemicals to consider … fumes and chemicals that you’d be breathing if you were tackle the paint job yourself. How much will the emergency room visit cost you when you slip in the paint puddle you made on the floor?  Stay healthy and let a professional assume the risk.

  • No Clean-up: Possibly the worst job in conjunction with the actual painting. A professional Oakland County Painter will safely dispose of toxic items as well as any residue that may remain from the job, including those little “whoops” that were made along the way.

  • They Don’t Buy the Cheap Stuff: A professional Oakland County Painter knows what works and what doesn’t. If you think that paintbrush you got at the dollar store will do a nice job for you, think again, good luck making a straight line with it.  It will only cost you time and more money to re-do and re-cover the project. Someone who has the best quality of supplies, will do the best quality of work. How much money would it cost you to purchase professional grade painting supplies? Why not just hire the professional?  It Just Makes Cents!

Metro Detroit Michigan's Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Contractor paints a pretty picture for Michigan Charities and Churches.

Mike DeLuca from Golden Touch Painting and Drywall Inc. (248) 787-0963 and Mark Maupin from Brick Repair LLC paint one heck of a pretty picture of what the Metro Detroit community is really about!

When I spoke with Mike DeLuca, he told me he was looking forward to giving back to the community that had kept them working through his own hard times.  Mike is one of those truly honest contractors, who is delighted and feels blessed to have the opportunity to give back to the community.  Mike and Mark have been working in Michigan’s past good years and also now during these unfortunate rough times of our economy.

Mike Said “It has been rough for the past few years.  I know that a lot of Michigan contractors have been struggling to keep there heads above water, and I was no exception.  Our economy is not the same as it was 7 years ago.  I feel blessed to have a roof over my head and to be able to keep busy during these rough times of our economy.  I was blessed to have a few local church’s help me out when I needed it.  So it only feels right to give back.”

Mike Run's a small painting & drywall company, in Oakland county Mi. they have been in the home repair and restoration industry for over 15 years. They are happy to provide the following services.

Interior & Exterior Painting, Epoxy floor coatings, Murals, Staining and varnishing, Faux Finishes (multiple methods), Wall paper removal, Wall paper hanging, Caulking, Fire and Water Damage Repair, Insurance work, Power washing, Block or Concrete water proofing, Deck restoration, Aluminum fence painting, Steele structure coatings, Sand Blasting, Drywall Installation, Drywall Repair, Drywall Hanging, Drywall Finishing, Popcorn ceilings & other textured wall & ceiling applications, Rough & Finish Carpentry, Rotted wood replacement, Basement Finishing, Interior Demolition.

Mike and Mark are looking to find a church or charity to provide there services to free of charge.  They said “We will provide the labor and tools, if they provide the material.  We have an opening available in our calendar on Mar. 15th and if we can find someone to help during that time it would be a great way to ring in the New Year”.  We hope any information gained is beneficial please feel free to call Mike for a consultation on any painting project. (248) 787-0963 or go to

If you're in need of a great Masonry Contractor then please visit -

Are you thinking about renting or buying a home or maybe updating and remodeling a house or home?  Here are some important facts and information that our team of West Bloomfield Painters thought would be important about the dangers of lead based paints from Wikipedia:

Lead-based paint in the United States

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Lead-based paint in the United States resulted in a court case against the Lead Industries Association.
Due in great part to studies carried out by Philip J. Landrigan, paint containing more than 0.06% (by weight of dried product) lead was banned for residential use in the United States in 1978 by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (16 Code of Federal Regulations CFR 1303). The U.S. Government defines "lead-based paint" as any "paint, surface coating that contains lead equal to or exceeding one milligram per square centimeter (1.0 mg/cm2) or 0.5% by weight."[1] Some states have adopted this or similar definitions of "lead-based paint." These definitions are used to enforce regulations that apply to certain activities conducted in housing constructed prior to 1978, such as abatement, or the permanent elimination of a "lead-based paint hazard."
The U.S. Government and many states have regulations regarding lead-based paint. Many of them apply to evaluating a property for lead-based paint. There are two different testing procedures that are similar but yield different information. Lead-based paint inspections will evaluate all painted surfaces in a complex to determine where lead-based paint, if any, is present. The procedures for lead inspections is outlined in the HUD Guidelines, Chapter 7, 1997 Revision. The other testing is a lead-based paint risk assessment. In this testing, only deteriorated painted surfaces are tested and dust wipe samples are collected. This information will help the risk assessor determine if there are any lead hazards. Many property owners decided to get a combination of both tests to determine where the lead-based paint is present and what hazards are present as well. Risk assessments are outlined in the HUD Guidelines, Chapter 5. In addition, if a child is poisoned in a property, the owner may be required to perform abatement (permanent elimination of the lead hazard).
In 1996, the Lead-Based Paint Disclosure Regulation was enacted. It requires owners of pre-1978 "target housing" to disclose to potential buyers or renters all known information about the presence of lead-based paint and/or lead-based paint hazards in the property. It requires that the potential buyer or tenant be given the lead information pamphlet, "Protect Your Family From Lead In Your Home," or other United States Environmental Protection Agency‎-approved pamphlet as well as a specific disclosure statement. The option of whether to test for the presence of lead-based paint is left to the owner, so long as a decision not to test is disclosed.
EPA signed a new regulation (Renovation, Repair and Painting (RRP))[2] regarding the renovation of child-occupied buildings built before 1978 on April 22, 2008. The rule (Federal Register: July 15, 2009 (Volume 74, Number 134)) became effective April 22, 2010. Under the rule, contractors performing renovation, repair and painting projects that disturb lead-based coatings (including lead paint, shellac or varnish) in child-occupied facilities built before 1978 must be certified and must follow specific work practices to prevent lead contamination. EPA’s RRP rule impacts many construction trades, including general contractors and special trade contractors, painters, plumbers, carpenters, window installers, wood floor refinishers and electricians. Activities performed by all of these trades can disturb lead-based paint and have the potential to create hazardous lead dust. For most individuals, eight hours of training is required. However, individuals who have successfully completed renovation courses developed by HUD or EPA, or an abatement worker or supervisor course accredited by EPA or an authorized State or Tribal program, can become certified renovators by taking a four hour EPA-accredited renovator refresher training.
The RRP rule is controversial, primarily due to the increased cost remodelers incur as a result of having to set up dust containment apparatuses,[3] including sealing off doorways and HVAC ducts with plastic. Various national trade associations have been very vocal in their opposition,[4] some going so far as to sue the EPA. Still, the EPA is deliberating expanding the rule to require contractors to pass a third-party dust wipe clearance exam[5] to in order to complete remodel work in pre-1978 buildings.
Although the rule was not fully implemented until April 2010, certain elements were required before, and others required attention well before April 2010.
Before April 2009 – Contractors that disturb paint in homes, residential buildings, schools and child care facilities built prior to 1978 had to provide lead hazard information prior to the start of the job to building owners, occupants, and to the families of children using the facilities by distributing EPA’s new Renovate Right brochure.[6] As of April 2009 – Trainers could begin to apply to EPA or an EPA-approved state for accreditation, and, once approved, contractors and construction trade workers could begin to take the training to become certified. Beginning October 2009 – Firms could apply for EPA or state certification. Beginning April 2010 – All businesses engaged in renovation, repair or painting activities in homes, residential buildings, schools and child care facilities built prior to 1978 must be certified, use certified workers, and follow specific lead-safe work practices to prevent lead contamination.[7]

[edit] State action against the lead paint industry

The state of Rhode Island filed a public nuisance lawsuit in 1999 State of Rhode Island v. Lead Industries Association to get the former manufacturers of lead paint to pay for the clean up of current lead hazards in Rhode Island. After a trial that ended in a hung jury in 2002, the state refiled the case. In February 2006, the jury decided in favor of the state and said that Sherwin-Williams, NL Industries and Millennium Holdings would have to pay for the clean-up of lead paint in the state. On July 1, 2008, the Rhode Island Supreme Court in a landmark decision overturned the verdict,[8] dismissing the case stating that "the State of Rhode Island 'cannot allege' facts sufficient to state a claim for common law public nuisance against lead pigment manufacturers."[9]
In 2007, the Missouri Supreme Court[10] and the New Jersey Supreme Court[11] also rejected the use of the public nuisance theory in lead paint lawsuits, leaving Ohio and California as the only two remaining public nuisance cases.
The California Supreme Court has reviewed the contingency fee agreement between the municipalities and private counsel. A briefing schedule is currently being set.[12] But in recent rulings the Supreme Court held the contingent fee agreement is improper stating that “When a government attorney has a personal interest in the litigation, the neutrality so essential to the system is violated.”[13]
While the City of Columbus, Ohio voluntary dropped its lawsuit against the paint industry after the Rhode Island decision,[14] the State of Ohio's suit remains.

[edit] Real estate maintenance and renovation

Humans can be poisoned during unsafe renovations or repainting jobs on housing that has lead paint. Therefore, homeowners are encouraged to carefully stabilize any deteriorated (peeling, chipping, cracking, etc.) paint in a lead-safe manner. More than 250,000 children in the United States have dangerous levels of lead in their bodies.[15]
Working in a lead-safe manner means avoiding dry sanding, dry scraping, removing paint by torching/burning, the use of heat guns over 1100°F, machine-sanding or grinding without HEPA filtered dust collection or HEPA-filtered vacuum. These methods are now prohibited by the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) because they have been proved to create significant levels of lead dust during remodeling, renovation and painting. They must be avoided, especially in properties where children under age six reside. Adult workers using unsafe work practices or improper protective gear may also become lead-poisoned.
There are specialized paint strippers for use with lead paint such as LEAD-OUT Paint Stripper, Strip-Tox, Lead-X, and others. Some of these specialized strippers render lead non-hazardous decreasing the risks associated with lead paint removal.
HUD requires a dust test for "clearance" at the end of any remodeling or repainting job be performed by a third-party professional who is independent of the entity performing the work. Contact your state's lead-poisoning prevention program (call the local health department or environmental department) or look in your Yellow Pages director under "lead paint" or "environmental consultants" to locate a lead-based paint professional who can do a clearance examination for your job.
Lead evaluations of paint are usually performed by a field testing method known as X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) using equipment such as the Olympus Innov-X LBP4000, RMD LPA-1, or the Thermo Scientific's Niton. XRF is the preferred method because it is not destructive and a reading is usually obtained in about 4–8 seconds with a 95% accuracy at the 2-sigma level.
Instruments of this sort have an inconclusive range, and when a reading falls in this range (range is different for each instrument and model), a paint chip may be taken and sent for laboratory analysis. Testing for lead in dust, water, and air also require laboratory analysis. Commercially available lead test kits are often used to test for the presence of lead, but they are not reliable and not authorized by HUD to be used in determining if a property is lead-based-paint free.
The home's year of construction can be a clue as to the likelihood that lead is present in its paint. Generally, two thirds of homes older than 1940 contain at least some lead paint, homes built between 1940 and 1960 have a 50% chance of containing such paint, homes built between 1960 and 1978 may still contain lead paint, while homes built after 1978 are unlikely to have lead-based paint.[16] The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Office of Healthy Homes and Lead Hazard Control performs regular studies of housing-based health hazards in the U.S.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Here is more information from Wikipedia about house painting and decorating:

House painter and decorator

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A modern house painter
A house painter and decorator is a tradesman responsible for the painting and decorating of buildings, and is also known as a decorator or house painter.[1][2] The purpose of painting is to make the house look better or to protect it from damage by water, rust, corrosion, insects or mould.



[edit] History of the trade

In England, little is known of the trade and its structures before the late 13th century, at which point guilds began to form, amongst them the Painters Company and the Stainers Company. These two guilds eventually merged with the consent of the Lord Mayor of the City of London in 1502, forming the Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. The guild standardised the craft and acted as a protector of the trade secrets. In 1599, the guild asked Parliament for protection, which was eventually granted in a bill of 1606, which granted the trade protection from outside competition such as plasterers.[2]
The Act legislated for a sevens year apprenticeship, and also barred plasterers from painting, unless apprenticed to a painter, with the penalty for such painting being a fine of £5. The Act also enshrined a maximum daily fee of 16 old pence for their labour.[2]

A painter painting a room in a house
Enforcement of this Act by the Painter-Stainers Company was sought up until the early 19th century, with master painters gathering irregularly to decide the fees that a journeyman could charge, and also instigating an early version of a job centre in 1769, advertising in the London newspapers a "house of call" system to advertise for journeymen and also for journeymen to advertise for work. The guild's power in setting the fee a journeyman could charge was eventually overturned by law in 1827, and the period after this saw the guild's power diminish, along with that of the other guilds; the guilds were superseded by trade unions, with the Operative United Painters' Union forming sometime around 1831.[2]
In 1894, a national association formed, recreating itself in 1918 as the National Federation of Master Painters and Decorators of England and Wales, then changing its name once again to the British Decorators Association before merging, in 2002, with the Painting & Decorating Federation to form the Painting & Decorating Association. The Construction Industry Joint Council, a body formed of both unions and business organizations, today has responsibility for the setting of pay levels.[2]

[edit] Tools of the trade

Grille peinture.jpg
The modern composition of paints results in latex formulations being widely used for exterior as well as interior. That reduces post painting cleanup, and reduces the smells associated with petroleum and polyester based paints. Computerized paint scanners formulate new paints to match the often faded colour of existing paints. Many chain stores offer colour matching service.
Modern paints are available in various specialized formulations that can be fade resistant, chip resistant, odor free, antibiotic to resist mould and fungi growth, etc.
For surfaces where a very smooth surface is desired, most retailers carry inexpensive chemicals that can be added to paints to better make the paint flow or lay flat.[3] Such additives are preferable to thinning paint, which can change some of the paint's characteristics.
For the layman, the most confusing element is primer and priming surfaces. For surfaces such as wood, paint alone is too thick and will be on the surface, but not adhere well, resulting in flaking. Primer is a thin paint solution, or even a specialized liquid colour coordinated to support the finish coat, which penetrates into the pores of wood, and allows the finish coat to adhere to the underlying primer.
Priming also results in less paint being needed. For unpainted wood, most laymen expect to apply two coats of paint. However, one coat of inexpensive primer and then a finish coat is much less expensive.
For metal surfaces, primer may involve special characteristics to resist corrosion, prevent impact chipping or improve adhesion of the finish coat.
Especially for problem paint jobs, such as new work, fungal presence or peeling paint, most professional paint retailers offer free consulting services. When their instructions and materials are used, guarantees of 5 to 20 years are available as to adhesion, water proofing, etc. of the finished paint job.
For professional painters, the majority of their time is spent in preparation for paint application, not in painting per se. Cleaning and sanding surfaces, taping and applying paper or plastic to surfaces not to be painted typically involve 50% or more of the painter's total time budget.
Although the brush and the fabric roller were the tools most readily associated with the painter, foam brushes are now commonly used for precise work requiring a straight line. Foam brushes can also be used to create a smoother surface using less paint that dries more quickly than brush applications.[4] Like fabric rollers, foam rollers can also create patterns in the painted surface. Foam rollers are available in a variety of professional materials for high-quality applications. [5] Although used in a variety of applications, the foam roller is commonly used during the painting of doors to produce an extremely smooth finish.
Recent advances in manufacture have led to a standardization of brushes, with many older types of brushes falling from fashion.[2] The spray gun is one of the latest tools in the painter's arsenal. It is powered by an electric, pneumatic or fuel powered motor which pumps paint through a hose into a gun which atomizes the paint to a fine spray. With the airless spray gun it is possible to paint extremely large areas of surface in a short time.
However, sprayed paint when dry can display unsightly patterns if the spraying application does not result in an even distribution of paint.
The ground brush, also known as a pound brush, was a round or elliptical brush bound by wire, cord or metal. They were generally heavy to use, and required considerable usage to break them in. These brushes were predominantly used in the days before modern paint manufacturing techniques; hand-mixed paints requiring more working to create the finish. These brushes still have use in applying primer, as they are useful in working the primer into the grain of the wood. Pound brushes required an even breaking in to create even bevel on both sides of the brush, minimising the formation of a point which would render the brush useless.[2] Sash tools were smaller brushes, similar to a ground brush, and used mainly for cutting in sash or glazing bars found on windows.
Sash tools and ground brushes generally required bridling before use, and a painter's efficiency in this skill was generally used as a guide to their overall ability. Both these brushes have largely been superseded by the modern varnish brush. Varnish brushes are the most common flat brushes available today and are used for painting as well as varnishing. Brushes intended for varnishing typically have a bevelled edge.[2]
Distemper brushes, used for applying distemper, an early form of whitewash, were best made of pure bristle and bound by copper bands to prevent rust damage. Styles differed across the world, with flat nailed brushes popular in Northern England, a two knot brush (a brush with two ovular heads) popular in Southern England, and three knot brushes or flat head brushes preferred elsewhere. In the United States distemper brushes were known as calcimine, kalsomine or calsomine brushes, each term being the U.S. variant of whitewash.[2]
Fitches are smaller brushes, either ovular or flat and one inch wide, that are used in fine work such as to pick out the detail on a painted moulding. Stipplers come in various shapes and sizes and are used to apply paint with a stippled effect. A duster or jamb brush was used to dust the area to be painted before work commenced. Stencil brushes, similar in style to a shaving brush, were used for the purpose of stencilling walls or in the creation of hand-made wallpapers.[2]
Brushes are best stored in a purpose made brush keeper, a box on which a wire could be suspended. The wire would be threaded through the hole in a brush's handle so as to suspend the brush in a cleaning solution without allowing the brush to sit on the bottom of the container and thus cause spreading of the bristles. The solution would also prevent hardening of the brushes and oxidization. These were generally rectangular and stored several brushes. A lid would enclose the brushes and keep them free from dust.[2]
If brushes are cleaned after use, they can last for years. Since most modern exterior and interior paints are latex based, cleaning the brushes after use with hot soapy water and a toothbrush can remove all traces of paint. Oil based paints are normally cleaned with a petroleum solvent such as mineral spirits, again using a toothbrush to remove all traces of paint. Metal "combs" are used to penetrate into the bristles of a brush to remove drying paint.
Although paints are now available in no-drip containers to pour paint into trays for roller application, most paints are sold in metal gallon or quart cans. For large jobs, paints come in 5-gallon containers.
For metal cans, a large diameter nail or punch is used to make drain holes in the lip of the can. The holes allow paint to return into the can. The lid can then be reattached correctly and removed later. Without the drain holes paint will accumulate in the lip, and act as an adhesive preventing the lid from being easily removed later. Closing a lid with paint in the lip can also result in paint travelling 15-feet or more horizontally.
The air in partly filled paint cans forms over time a dried surface film. To prevent development of film, prior to closing a latex paint container add a small amount of distilled (or tap) water that will remain on the top and prevent drying. For oil based paints use the solvent recommended for brush cleaning. When the container is reopened, stir the water/solvent into the paint before using.
Drop cloths, brown painter's paper, dust-sheets, paint sheets, paint tarpaulins or plastic protection films are used to protect nearby surfaces that are not being painted.
Masking tape can be used to define the line between the painted and unpainted surface, as well as to hold protection materials in place. Masking tape is available in several categories. The classic tape is a high adhesive. However it can damage the underlying surface when removed, and the longer it's in place the greater the risk of damage.
Modern delay removal tape prevents damaging the taped surface.[6] "Delicate" tape has about 40% the adhesion of traditional tape, and can remain on a surface for up to 30-days without creating damage.[7]
The less adhesive tapes should be used especially when tape is applied to new work. Depending on the paint composition, "dry" paint may still be soft and easily damaged for 30-days or more.
Some modern house painters in the US, Canada and Australia have adopted colour visualization computer software, developed by companies such as Autech Software & Design, as an additional tool to help demonstrate to customers how their home would look after it is painted. House painters can use a digital photo outputted by this software to show possible colour schemes on the client's home exterior or room walls to help with their colour selection.

[edit] Activities of the trade

Historically, the painter was responsible for the mixing of the paint; keeping a ready supply of pigments, oils, thinners and driers. The painter would use his experience to determine a suitable mixture depending on the nature of the job. In modern times, the painter is primarily responsible for preparation of the surface to be painted, such as patching holes in drywall, using masking tape and other protection on surfaces not to be painted, applying the paint and then cleaning up.[2]
Larger firms operating within the trade were generally capable of performing many painting or decoration services, from sign writing, to the gilding of objects or the finishing or refinishing of furniture.[2]
More recently, professional painters are responsible for all preparation prior to painting. All scraping, sanding, wallpaper removal, caulking, drywall or wood repair, patching, stain removal, filling nail holes or any defects with plaster or putty, cleaning, taping, preparation and priming are considered to be done by the professional contracted painter.
Before repainting, surfaces are usually cleaned with sugar soap (in Commonwealth countries) which usually contains sodium carbonate, sodium phosphate, and sometimes sodium silicate as an abrasive, though formulations vary. In the U.S.A. a similar compound known as TSP is used but some modern formulations do not contain phosphates due to environmental concerns.
Professional painters need to have keen knowledge of tools of the trade, including sanders, scrapers, paint sprayers, brushes, paint rollers, ladders and scaffolding, in addition to just the paint in order to correctly complete work. Much preparation needs to be considered before simply applying paint. For instance, taping and dropcloth techniques, sizes of brushes or rollers, material types or dimensions of rollers or brushes (there are different sizes or types of brushes and rollers for different paints), amount of paint, number of paint coats, amount of primer, types of primers and paints, certain grits and cuts of sandpaper, trim cutting (the act of painting with a brush on the outline of baseboard, mouldings and other trim work), wallpaper removal, and nail-hole filling techniques. Today many painters are attempting to break into the field of faux painting, allowing them more creativity and access to a higher end customer base.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

Industrial painting

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Industrial Painting is defined by the "Manifesto of Industrial Painting: For a unitary applied art"[1], a text by Giuseppe Pinot-Gallizio which was originally published in Notizie Arti Figurative No. 9 (1959). A French translation was soon published in Internationale Situationniste no.3 (1959). In May 1997, Molly Klein translated the original Italian version into English.
"The machine may very well be the appropriate instrument for the creation of an industrial-inflationist art, based on the Anti-Patent; the new industrial culture will be strictly "Made Amongst People" or not at all! The time of the Scribes is over."
"When thousands of painters who today labor at the non-sense of detail will have the possibilities which machines offer, there will be no more giant stamps, called paintings to satisfy the investment of value, but thousands of kilometers of fabric offered in the streets, in markets, for barter, allowing millions of people to enjoy them and exciting the experience of arrangement."

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links


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Epoxy or polyepoxide is a thermosetting polymer formed from reaction of an epoxide "resin" with polyamine "hardener". Epoxy has a wide range of applications, including fiber-reinforced plastic materials and general purpose adhesives.



[edit] Chemistry

Structure of unmodified epoxy prepolymer resin. n denotes the number of polymerized subunits and is in the range from 0 to about 25

Structure of TETA, a typical hardener. The amine (NH) groups react with the epoxide groups of the resin during polymerization.
Epoxy is a copolymer; that is, it is formed from two different chemicals. These are referred to as the "resin" and the "hardener". The resin consists of monomers or short chain polymers with an epoxide group at either end. Most common epoxy resins are produced from a reaction between epichlorohydrin and bisphenol-A, though the latter may be replaced by similar chemicals. The hardener consists of polyamine monomers, for example Triethylenetetramine (TETA). When these compounds are mixed together, the amine groups react with the epoxide groups to form a covalent bond. Each NH group can react with an epoxide group, so that the resulting polymer is heavily crosslinked, and is thus rigid and strong.[1][2]
The process of polymerization is called "curing", and can be controlled through temperature, choice of resin and hardener compounds, and the ratio of said compounds; the process can take minutes to hours. Some formulations benefit from heating during the cure period, whereas others simply require time, and ambient temperatures.

[edit] History

The first commercial attempts to prepare resins from epichlorohydrin were made in 1927 in the United States. Credit for the first synthesis of bisphenol-A-based epoxy resins is shared by Dr. Pierre Castan of Switzerland and Dr. S.O. Greenlee of the United States in 1936. Dr. Castan's work was licensed by Ciba, Ltd. of Switzerland, which went on to become one of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide. Ciba's epoxy business was spun off and later sold in the late 1990s and is now the advanced materials business unit of Huntsman Corporation of the United States. Dr. Greenlee's work was for the firm of Devoe-Reynolds of the United States. Devoe-Reynolds, which was active in the early days of the epoxy resin industry, was sold to Shell Chemical (now Hexion, formerly Resolution Polymers and others).

[edit] Applications

The applications for epoxy-based materials are extensive and include coatings, adhesives and composite materials such as those using carbon fiber and fiberglass reinforcements (although polyester, vinyl ester, and other thermosetting resins are also used for glass-reinforced plastic). The chemistry of epoxies and the range of commercially available variations allows cure polymers to be produced with a very broad range of properties. In general, epoxies are known for their excellent adhesion, chemical and heat resistance, good-to-excellent mechanical properties and very good electrical insulating properties. Many properties of epoxies can be modified (for example silver-filled epoxies with good electrical conductivity are available, although epoxies are typically electrically insulating). Variations offering high thermal insulation, or thermal conductivity combined with high electrical resistance for electronics applications, are available.[3]

[edit] Paints and coatings

Two part epoxy coatings were developed for heavy duty service on metal substrates and use less energy than heat-cured powder coatings. These systems use a 4:1 by volume mixing ratio, and dry quickly providing a tough, protective coating with excellent hardness. Their low volatility and water clean up makes them useful for factory cast iron, cast steel, cast aluminum applications and reduces exposure and flammability issues associated with solvent-borne coatings. They are usually used in industrial and automotive applications since they are more heat resistant than latex-based and alkyd-based paints. Epoxy paints tend to deteriorate, known as chalk out, due to UV exposure.
Polyester epoxies are used as powder coatings for washers, driers and other "white goods". Fusion Bonded Epoxy Powder Coatings (FBE) are extensively used for corrosion protection of steel pipes and fittings used in the oil and gas industry, potable water transmission pipelines (steel), concrete reinforcing rebar, et cetera. Epoxy coatings are also widely used as primers to improve the adhesion of automotive and marine paints especially on metal surfaces where corrosion (rusting) resistance is important. Metal cans and containers are often coated with epoxy to prevent rusting, especially for foods like tomatoes that are acidic. Epoxy resins are also used for high performance and decorative flooring applications especially terrazzo flooring, chip flooring[4] and colored aggregate flooring.[5]

[edit] Adhesives

Special epoxy is strong enough to withstand the forces between a surfboard fin and the fin mount. This epoxy is waterproof and capable of curing underwater. The blue-coloured epoxy on the left is still undergoing curing.
Epoxy adhesives are a major part of the class of adhesives called "structural adhesives" or "engineering adhesives" (that includes polyurethane, acrylic, cyanoacrylate, and other chemistries.) These high-performance adhesives are used in the construction of aircraft, automobiles, bicycles, boats, golf clubs, skis, snowboards, and other applications where high strength bonds are required. Epoxy adhesives can be developed to suit almost any application. They can be used as adhesives for wood, metal, glass, stone, and some plastics. They can be made flexible or rigid, transparent or opaque/colored, fast setting or slow setting. Epoxy adhesives are better in heat and chemical resistance than other common adhesives. In general, epoxy adhesives cured with heat will be more heat- and chemical-resistant than those cured at room temperature. The strength of epoxy adhesives is degraded at temperatures above 350 °F (177 °C).[6]
Some epoxies are cured by exposure to ultraviolet light. Such epoxies are commonly used in optics, fiber optics, optoelectronics, and dentistry.[citation needed]

[edit] Industrial tooling and composites

Epoxy systems are used in industrial tooling applications to produce molds, master models, laminates, castings, fixtures, and other industrial production aids. This "plastic tooling" replaces metal, wood and other traditional materials, and generally improves the efficiency and either lowers the overall cost or shortens the lead-time for many industrial processes. Epoxies are also used in producing fiber-reinforced or composite parts. They are more expensive than polyester resins and vinyl ester resins, but usually produce stronger and more temperature-resistant composite parts.

[edit] Electrical systems and electronics

An epoxy encapsulated hybrid circuit on a printed circuit board.
Epoxy resin formulations are important in the electronics industry, and are employed in motors, generators, transformers, switchgear, bushings, and insulators. Epoxy resins are excellent electrical insulators and protect electrical components from short circuiting, dust and moisture. In the electronics industry epoxy resins are the primary resin used in overmolding integrated circuits, transistors and hybrid circuits, and making printed circuit boards. The largest volume type of circuit board—an "FR-4 board"—is a sandwich of layers of glass cloth bonded into a composite by an epoxy resin. Epoxy resins are used to bond copper foil to circuit board substrates, and are a component of the solder mask on many circuit boards.
Flexible epoxy resins are used for potting transformers and inductors. By using vacuum impregnation on uncured epoxy, winding-to-winding, winding-to-core, and winding-to-insulator air voids are eliminated. The cured epoxy is an electrical insulator and a much better conductor of heat than air. Transformer and inductor hot spots are greatly reduced, giving the component a stable and longer life than unpotted product.
Epoxy resins are applied using the technology of resin dispensing.

[edit] Consumer and marine applications

Epoxies are sold in hardware stores, typically as a pack containing separate resin and hardener, which must be mixed immediately before use. They are also sold in boat shops as repair resins for marine applications. Epoxies typically are not used in the outer layer of a boat because they deteriorate by exposure to UV light. They are often used during boat repair and assembly, and then over-coated with conventional or two-part polyurethane paint or marine-varnishes that provide UV protection.
There are two main areas of marine use. Because of the better mechanical properties relative to the more common polyester resins, epoxies are used for commercial manufacture of components where a high strength/weight ratio is required. The second area is that their strength, gap filling properties and excellent adhesion to many materials including timber have created a boom in amateur building projects including aircraft and boats.
Normal gelcoat formulated for use with polyester resins and vinylester resins does not adhere to epoxy surfaces, though epoxy adheres very well if applied to polyester resin surfaces. "Flocoat" that is normally used to coat the interior of polyester fibreglass yachts is also compatible with epoxies.
Epoxy materials tend to harden somewhat more gradually, while polyester materials tend to harden quickly, particularly if a lot of catalyst is used. The chemical reactions in both cases are exothermic. Large quantities of mix will generate their own heat and greatly speed the reaction, so it is usual to mix small amounts which can be used quickly.
While it is common to associate polyester resins and epoxy resins, their properties are sufficiently different that they are properly treated as distinct materials. Polyester resins are typically low strength unless used with a reinforcing material like glass fibre, are relatively brittle unless reinforced, and have low adhesion. Epoxies, by contrast, are inherently strong, somewhat flexible and have excellent adhesion. However, polyester resins are much cheaper.
Epoxy resins typically require a precise mix of two components which form a third chemical. Depending on the properties required, the ratio may be anything from 1:1 or over 10:1, but in every case they must be mixed exactly. The final product is then a precise thermo-setting plastic. Until they are mixed the two elements are relatively inert, although the 'hardeners' tend to be more chemically active and should be protected from the atmosphere and moisture. The rate of the reaction can be changed by using different hardeners, which may change the nature of the final product, or by controlling the temperature.
By contrast, polyester resins are usually made available in a 'promoted' form, such that the progress of previously-mixed resins from liquid to solid is already underway, albeit very slowly. The only variable available to the user is to change the rate of this process using a catalyst, often Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone-Peroxide (MEKP), which is very toxic. The presence of the catalyst in the final product actually detracts from the desirable properties, so that small amounts of catalyst are preferable, so long as the hardening proceeds at an acceptable pace. The rate of cure of polyesters can therefore be controlled both by the amount of catalyst and by the temperature.
As adhesives, epoxies bond in three ways: a) Mechanically, because the bonding surfaces are roughened; b) By proximity, because the cured resins are physically so close to the bonding surfaces that they are hard to separate; c) Ionically, because the epoxy resins form ionic bonds at an atomic level with the bonding surfaces. This last is substantially the strongest of the three. By contrast, polyester resins can only bond using the first two of these, which greatly reduces their utility as adhesives and in marine repair.

[edit] Aerospace applications

In the aerospace industry, epoxy is used as a structural matrix material which is then reinforced by fiber. Typical fiber reinforcements include glass, carbon, Kevlar, and boron. Epoxies are also used as a structural glue. Materials like wood, and others that are 'low-tech' are glued with epoxy resin.

[edit] Art

Epoxy resin, mixed with pigment, is used as a painting medium, by pouring layers on top of each other to form a complete picture.[7]

[edit] Wind Energy applications

Epoxy resin is used in manufacturing the rotor blades of wind turbines. The resin is infused in the core materials, such as balsa wood or foam, and the reinforcing media, such as fabric, glass fibre or carbon fibre. The process is called VARTM, i.e. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding. Due to excellent properties and good finish, epoxy is the most favoured resin for composites.

[edit] Industry

As of 2006, the epoxy industry amounts to more than US$5 billion in North America and about US$15 billion worldwide. The Chinese market has been growing rapidly, and accounts for more than 30% of the total worldwide market. It is made up of approximately 50–100 manufacturers of basic or commodity epoxy resins and hardeners of which the three largest are Hexion (formerly Resolution Performance Products, formerly Shell Development Company; whose epoxy tradename is "Epon"), the Dow Chemical Company (tradename "D.E.R."), and Huntsman Corporation's Advanced Materials business unit (formerly Vantico, formerly Ciba Specialty Chemical; tradename "Araldite"). In 2007 Huntsman Corporation agreed to merge with Hexion (owned by the Apollo Group).[8][9] KUKDO Chemical is one of the largest epoxy manufacturers in Asia, and recently their capacity has been increased up to 210,000 MT/Y (Korea 150,000 MT/Y, China 60,000 MT/Y and will be increased totally 300,000 MT/Y by 2009). Nanya Plastic also has the capacity of over 250,000 MT/Y (Taiwan and China), which is mostly for captive use. There are over 50 smaller epoxy manufacturers primarily producing epoxies only regionally, epoxy hardeners only, specialty epoxies, or epoxy modifiers.
These commodity epoxy manufacturers mentioned above typically do not sell epoxy resins in a form usable to smaller end users, so there is another group of companies that purchase epoxy raw materials from the major producers and then compounds (blends, modifies, or otherwise customizes) epoxy systems from these raw materials. These companies are known as "formulators". The majority of the epoxy systems sold are produced by these formulators and they comprise over 60% of the dollar value of the epoxy market. There are hundreds of ways that these formulators can modify epoxies—by adding mineral fillers (talc, silica, alumina, etc.), by adding flexibilizers, viscosity reducers, colorants, thickeners, accelerators, adhesion promoters, etc.. These modifications are made to reduce costs, to improve performance, and to improve processing convenience. As a result a typical formulator sells dozens or even thousands of formulations—each tailored to the requirements of a particular application or market.
Impacted by the global economic slump, the epoxy market size declined to $15.8 billion in 2009, almost to the level of 2005. In some regional markets it even decreased nearly 20%. The current epoxy market is experiencing positive growth as the global economy revives. With an annual growth rate of 3.5 - 4% the epoxy market is expected to reach $17.7 billion by 2012 and $21.35 by 2015. Higher growth rate is foreseen thereafter due to stronger demands from epoxy composite market and epoxy adhesive market.[10]

[edit] Health risks

The primary risk associated with epoxy use is sensitization to the hardener, which, over time, can induce an allergic reaction. It is a main source of occupational asthma among users of plastics.[11] Bisphenol A, which is used in epoxy resin, is a known endocrine disruptor.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ "Epoxy Chemistry". 
  2. ^ "Epoxy Polymers". 
  3. ^ May, Clayton A. (1987-12-23). Epoxy Resins: Chemistry and Technology (Second ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker Inc. p. 794. ISBN 0824776909. 
  4. ^ Norm Lambert. "Chips Flooring". Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  5. ^ Norman L. Lambert. "Quartz Flooring". Retrieved 2010-07-24. 
  6. ^ Morena, John J (1988). Advanced Composite Mold Making. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Inc. pp. 124–125. ISBN 9780442264147. 
  7. ^ McCreight, Tim; Bsullak, Nicole. Color on Metal: 50 Artists Share Insights and Techniques. Madison, WI: Guild. p. 74. ISBN 1893164063. 
  8. ^ Steve Gelsi, "Huntsman OK's $10.6 bln takeover offer from Apollo's Hexion", Market Watch, July 12, 2007.
  9. ^ Market Participant, "Hexion IPO Creates Way Too Much Debt", June 22, 2006.
  10. ^ "Market Report: World Epoxy Resin Market". Acmite Market Intelligence. 
  11. ^ MayoClinic --> Occupational asthma May 23, 2009

[edit] External links


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Example of drywall with joint compound, the common interior building material. (This photo shows drywall hung vertically.)
Drywall, also known as plasterboard or gypsum board, is a panel made of gypsum plaster pressed between two thick sheets of paper. It is used to make interior walls and ceilings.
Plasterboard panels are also known as wallboard (USA, UK, Ireland),[citation needed] Gibraltar board or GIB wall and ceiling linings (in New Zealand, trademark of Winstone Wallboards[1]), rock lath,[2] Sheetrock (a trademark of USG Corporation), Gyproc (in Australia, a trademark of Compagnie de Saint-Gobain).
The sheets of the drywall can be made from fiberglass instead of paper to prevent mold growth. Mold growth is common when using paper-based plasterboard that has been exposed to water due to plumbing leaks or floods.
Drywall construction became prevalent as a speedier alternative to using plaster-based interior finish techniques, which involved forcefully spreading a substrate of coarse plaster, known as the base (made up of the scratch coat and (optional) brown coat), onto the wall's lath-work before finally applying the smoother finish coat, each layer added in succession and all by hand (see lath and plaster).[3] Drywall, by contrast to plaster, requires hand finishing only at the fasteners and joints. The drywall process requires less labor and drying time, lending its name to the panels used in the assembly.[citation needed]



[edit] History

"Sackett Board" was invented in 1894 by Augustine Sackett. It was made by layering plaster within four plies of wool felt paper. Sheets were 36" x 36" x 1/4" thick with open (untaped) edges."[4]
"Gypsum Board" evolved between 1910 and 1930 beginning with wrapped board edges, and elimination of the two inner layers of felt paper in favor of paper-based facings. Providing efficiency of installation, it was developed additionally as a measure of fire resistance. [5] Later air entrainment technology made boards lighter and less brittle, then joint treatment materials and systems also evolved. "[4]
"Rock Lath" was an early substrate for plaster. An alternative to traditional wood or metal lath, it was a panel made up of compressed gypsum plaster board that was sometimes grooved or punched with holes to allow wet plaster to key into its surface. As it evolved, it was faced with paper impregnated with gypsum crystals that bonded with the applied facing layer of plaster.[2]

[edit] Manufacture

A wallboard panel is made of a paper liner wrapped around an inner core made primarily from gypsum plaster. The raw gypsum, CaSO4·2 H2O, (mined or obtained from flue gas desulfurization (FGD)) must be calcined before use to produce the hemihydrate of calcium sulfate (CaSO4·½ H2O). This is done in kettle or flash calciners, typically using natural gas today. The plaster is mixed with fiber (typically paper and/or fiberglass), plasticizer, foaming agent, finely ground gypsum crystal as an accelerator, EDTA, starch or other chelate as a retarder, various additives that may increase mildew and/or fire resistance (fiberglass or vermiculite), wax emulsion or silanes for lower water absorption and water. This is then formed by sandwiching a core of wet gypsum between two sheets of heavy paper or fiberglass mats. When the core sets and is dried in a large drying chamber, the sandwich becomes rigid and strong enough for use as a building material.
Drying chambers typically use natural gas today. To dry 1 MSF (1,000 square feet) of wallboard, between 1.75 and 2.49 million BTU is required. Organic dispersants/plasticisers are used mainly to reduce the amount of water, hence reduce the eventual drying time, needed to produce gypsum slurry flow during wallboard manufacture.[6]

[edit] Specifications

[edit] USA and Canada

Drywall panels are manufactured in 48 inches (120 cm) wide panels in varying lengths to suit the application. Common panel thicknesses are 1/2" (13 mm) and 5/8" (16 mm), with panels also available in 1/4" (6 mm) and 3/8" (10 mm). Both 1/2" (13 mm) and 5/8" (16 mm) panels of TYPE 'X' (a gypsum board with special core additives to increase the natural fire resistance of regular gypsum board[7]) are used where a fire-resistance rating is desired. Regular 5/8" (16 mm) panels are used (with or without light gauge resilient metal channels) where additional mass is needed for the reduction of sound transmission.[citation needed]
Drywall provides a thermal resistance R-value (in US units) of 0.32 for 3/8" board, 0.45 for 1/2", 0.56 for 5/8", and 0.83 for 1" board. In addition to increased R-value, thicker drywall has a higher sound transmission class.[citation needed]

[edit] Europe

In the UK and Europe, plasterboard is manufactured in metric sizes, with the common sizes being corollaries of old imperial sizes.
Most plasterboard is made in 120 cm wide sheets, though 90 cm and 60 cm wide sheets are also made. 120 cm wide plasterboard is most commonly made in 240 cm lengths, though 270 cm and 300 cm length sheets are also commonly available.
Commonly used thicknesses of plasterboard available are 12.5 mm (modern equivalent of half an inch), typically used for walls, and 9.5 mm (modern equivalent of three-eights of an inch), typically used for ceilings. 15 mm thick board is commonly available, and other thicknesses are also produced.[citation needed]
Plasterboard is commonly made with one of two different edge treatments—tapered edge, where the long edges of the board are tapered with a wide bevel at the front to allow for jointing materials to be finished flush with the main board face, and plain edge, used where the whole surface will receive a thin coating (skim coat) of finishing plaster.

[edit] Construction techniques

Drywall is delivered to a building site on a flatbed truck and unloaded with a forked material handler crane. The bulk drywall sheets are unloaded directly to upper floors via a window or exterior doorway.
As opposed to a week-long plaster application, an entire house can be drywalled in one or two days by two experienced drywallers, and drywall is easy enough to use that it can be installed by many amateur home carpenters. In large-scale commercial construction, the work of installing and finishing drywall is often split between the drywall mechanics, or hangers, who install the wallboard, and the tapers and mudmen, or float crew, who finish the joints and cover the nailheads with drywall compound.[citation needed]
Drywall is cut to size, using a large T-square, by scoring the paper on the front side (usually white) with a utility knife, breaking the sheet along the cut, scoring the paper backing, and finally breaking the sheet in the opposite direction. Small features such as holes for outlets and light switches are usually cut using a keyhole saw or a small high-speed bit in a rotary tool. Drywall is then fixed to the wall structure with nails, glue, or more commonly in recent years, the now-ubiquitous drywall screws.
Drywall fasteners, also referred to as drywall clips or stops, are gaining popularity in both residential and commercial construction. Drywall fasteners are used for supporting interior drywall corners and replacing the non-structural wood or metal blocking that traditionally was used to install drywall. Their function serves to save on material and labour expenses; to minimize call backs due to truss uplift; to increase energy efficiency; and to make plumbing and electrical installation simpler.

Drywall screws are designed to be self-tapping.
Drywall screws heads have a curved taper, allowing them to self-pilot and install rapidly without punching through the paper cover. These screws are set slightly into the drywall. When drywall is hung on wood framing, screws having an acute point and widely spaced threads are used. When drywall is hung on light-gauge steel framing, screws having an acute point and finely spaced threads are used. If the steel framing is heavier than 20-gauge, self-tapping screws with finely spaced threads must be used. In some applications, the drywall may be attached to the wall with adhesives.

Electric screw gun used to drive drywall screws
After the sheets are secured to the wall studs or ceiling joists, the seams between drywall sheets are concealed using joint tape and several layers of joint compound (sometimes called mud). This compound is also applied to any screw holes or defects. The compound is allowed to air dry then typically sanded smooth before painting. Alternatively, for a better finish, the entire wall may be given a skim coat, a thin layer (about 1 mm or 1/16 inch) of finishing compound, to minimize the visual differences between the paper and mudded areas after painting.
Another similar skim coating is always done in a process called veneer plastering, although it is done slightly thicker (about 2 mm or 1/8 inch). Veneering uses a slightly different specialized setting compound ("finish plaster") that contains gypsum and lime putty. This application uses blueboard, which has special treated paper to accelerate the setting of the gypsum plaster component. This setting has far less shrinkage than the air-dry compounds normally used in drywall, so it only requires one coat. Blueboard also has square edges rather than the tapered-edge drywall boards. The tapered drywall boards are used to countersink the tape in taped jointing whereas the tape in veneer plastering is buried beneath a level surface. One coat veneer plaster over dry board is an intermediate style step between full multi-coat "wet" plaster and the limited joint-treatment-only given "dry" wall.

[edit] Water damage and mold

Drywall water damage in a closet.
Drywall is easily damaged by exposure to water. While it can be waterproofed through covalent waterproofing, if waterproofing is absent or if the waterproofing layer is punctured, water will cause drywall to swell and eventually disintegrate, requiring replacement. Drywall is a porous, lightweight substance that supports the growth of mold. It is for this reason that greenboard and cement board is used for rooms expected to have high humidity.

[edit] Fire resistance

When used as a component in fire barriers, drywall is a passive fire protection item. In its natural state, gypsum contains the water of crystallization bound in the form of hydrates. When exposed to heat or fire, this water is vapourised, retarding heat transfer. Therefore, a fire in one room that is separated from an adjacent room by a fire-resistance rated drywall assembly will not cause this adjacent room to get any warmer than the boiling point (100°C) until the water in the gypsum is gone. This makes drywall an ablative material because as the hydrates sublime, a crumbly dust is left behind, which, along with the paper, is sacrificial. Generally, the more layers of Type X drywall one adds, the more one increases the fire-resistance of the assembly, be it horizontal or vertical. Evidence of this can be found both in publicly available design catalogues, including, but not limited to DIN4102 Part 4 and the Canadian Building Code on the topic, as well as common certification listings, including but not limited to certification listings provided by Underwriters Laboratories and Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC). "Type X" drywall is formulated by adding glass fibers to the gypsum, to increase the resistance to fires, especially once the hydrates are spent, which leaves the gypsum in powder form. Type X is typically the material chosen to construct walls and ceilings that are required to have a fire-resistance rating.
Fire testing of drywall assemblies for the purpose of expanding national catalogues, such as the National Building Code of Canada, Germany's Part 4 of DIN4102 and its British cousin BS476, are a matter of routine research and development work in more than one nation and can be sponsored jointly by national authorities and representatives of the drywall industry. For example, the National Research Council of Canada routinely publishes such findings.[8] The results are printed as approved designs in the back of the building code. Generally, exposure of drywall on a panel furnace removes the water and calcines the exposed drywall and also heats the studs and fasteners holding the drywall. This typically results in deflection of the assembly towards the fire, as that is the location where the sublimation occurs, which weakens the assembly, due to the fire influence.
When tests are cosponsored, resulting in code recognized designs with assigned fire-resistance ratings, the resulting designs become part of the code and are not limited to use by any one manufacturer, provided the material used in the field configuration can be demonstrated to meet the minimum requirements of Type X drywall (such as an entry in the appropriate category of the UL Building Materials Directory) and that sufficient layers and thicknesses are used. Fire test reports for such unique third party tests are confidential.
Deflection of drywall assemblies is important to consider to maintain the integrity of drywall assemblies in order to preserve their ratings. The deflection of drywall assemblies can vary somewhat from one test to another. Importantly, penetrants do not follow the deflection movement of the drywall assemblies they penetrate. For example, see cable tray movement in a German test. It is, therefore, important to test firestops in full scale wall panel tests, so that the deflection of each applicable assembly can be taken into account. The size of the test wall assembly alone is not the only consideration for firestop tests. If the penetrants are mounted to and hung off the drywall assembly itself during the test, this does not constitute a realistic deflection exposure insofar as the firestop is concerned. In reality, on a construction site, penetrants are hung off the ceiling above. Penetrants may increase in length, push and pull as a result of operational temperature changes (e.g., hot and cold water in a pipe), particularly in a fire, but it is a physical impossibility to have the penetrants follow the movement of drywall assemblies that they penetrate, since they are not mounted to the drywalls in a building. It is, therefore, counterproductive to suspend penetrants from the drywall assembly during a fire test. As downward deflection of the drywall assembly and buckling towards the fire occurs, the top of the firestop is squeezed and the bottom of the firestop is pulled, and this is motion over and above that, which is caused by the expansion of metallic penetrants, due to heat exposure in a fire. Both types of motion occur in reality, because metal first expands in a fire and then softens once the critical temperature has been reached, as is explained under structural steel. To simulate the drywall deflection effect, one can simply mount the penetrants to the steel frame holding the test assembly. The operational and fire induced motion of the penetrants, which is independent of the assemblies penetrated, can be separately arranged.

[edit] North American market

North America is one of the largest gypsum board users in the world with a total wallboard plant capacity of 42 billion square feet per year (world wide 85 billion square feet per year).[9] Moreover, the home building and remodeling markets in North America have increased demand the last five years. The gypsum board market is one of the biggest beneficiaries of the housing boom as "an average new American home contains more than 7.31 metric tons of gypsum."[10]
The introduction in March 2005 of the Clean Air Interstate Rule by the United States Environmental Protection Agency requires power plants to "cut sulfur dioxide emissions by 73%" by 2018.[11] The Clean Air Interstate Rule also requested that the power plants install new scrubbers (industrial pollution control devices) to remove sulfur dioxide present in the output waste gas. Scrubbers use the technique of flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which produces synthetic gypsum as a usable by-product. In response to the new supply of this raw material, the gypsum board market was predicted to shift significantly. However, issues such as mercury release during calcining need to be resolved.[12]

[edit] Waste

Because up to 17% of drywall is wasted during the manufacturing and installation processes[citation needed] and the drywall material is frequently not re-used, disposal can become a problem. Some landfill sites have banned the dumping of drywall. Some manufacturers take back waste wallboard from construction sites and recycle it into new wallboard. Recycled paper is typically used during manufacturing. More recently, recycling at the construction site itself is being investigated. There is potential for using crushed drywall to amend certain soils at building sites, such as sodic clay and silt mixtures (bay mud), as well as using it in compost.[13]

[edit] Types available in the USA and Canada

  • Regular white board, from 1/4" to 3/4" thickness
  • Fire-resistant ("Type X"), different thickness and multiple layers of wallboard provide increased fire rating based on the time a specific wall assembly can withstand a standardized fire test. Often perlite, vermiculite and boric acid are added to improve fire resistance.
  • Greenboard, the drywall that contains an oil-based additive in the green colored paper covering that provides moisture resistance. It is commonly used in washrooms and other areas expected to experience elevated levels of humidity.[citation needed]
  • Blueboard, blue face paper forms a strong bond with a skim coat or a built-up plaster finish providing both water and mold resistance.
  • Cement board, which is more water-resistant than greenboard, for use in showers or sauna rooms, and as a base for ceramic tile
  • Soundboard is made from wood fibers to increase the sound rating (STC)
  • Soundproof drywall is a laminated drywall made with gypsum, other materials, and damping polymers to significantly increase the STC[citation needed]
  • Mold-resistant, paperless drywall[citation needed]
  • Enviroboard, a board made from recycled agricultural materials
  • Lead-lined drywall, a drywall used around radiological equipment[citation needed]
  • Foil-backed drywall to control moisture in a building or room[citation needed]
  • Controlled density (CD), also called ceiling board, which is available only in 1/2" thickness and is significantly stiffer than regular white board.
  • EcoRock, a drywall which uses a combination of 20 materials including recycled fly ash, slag, kiln dust and fillers and no starch cellulose; it is advertised as being environmentally-friendly due to the use of recycled materials and an energy efficient process.[14]
  • Gypsum “Firecode C.” This board is similar in composition to Type X,except that it has more glass fibers,and, it has another ingredient in the gypsum core. This ingredient is a shrinkage-compensating additive, a form of vermiculite. When exposed to high heat, the gypsum core shrinks but the shrinkage-compensating element expands at about the same rate as shrinkage occurs in the water-depleted gypsum.
The gypsum core then is more stable in a fire and remains in place even after the combined water in the gypsum has been driven off.

[edit] Common drywall tools

[edit] Levels of finish

"In 1990, four major trade associations, the Association of Wall and Ceiling Industries International (AWCI), the Ceilings and Interior Systems Construction Association (CISCA), the Gypsum Association (GA), and the Painting and Decorating Contractors of America (PDCA), presented the consensus document Levels of Gypsum Board Finish. The document was created to "precisely describe" the desired finish of walls and ceilings prior to final decoration. This precise description enables contractors to better understand the requirements of architects and building owners in order to enhance the satisfaction of the client. Specifications that include the Levels of Gypsum Board Finish also promote competitive bidding that allows the bidder to consider the correct labor and materials to finish the wall suitably for its final decoration." [15]
The official document (summarized below) is known as GA-214-96 "Recommended Levels of Gypsum Board Finish".

[edit] Level 0

No taping, finishing, or accessories required.
Usage: Temporary construction or when final decoration is undetermined.

[edit] Level 1

All joints and interior angles shall have tape set in joint compound. Surface shall be free of excess joint compound. Tool marks and ridges are acceptable.
Usage: Above false ceilings or other areas that are out of public view where a degree of fire and noise resistance is required.

[edit] Level 2

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and wiped with a joint knife leaving a thin coating of joint compound over all joints and interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with a coat of joint compound. Surface shall be free of excess joint compound. Tool marks and ridges are acceptable. Joint compound applied over the body of the tape at the time of tape embedment shall be considered a separate coat of joint compound and shall satisfy the conditions of this level.
Usage: As a substrate for tile walls and ceilings as well as in garages, warehouses, and other places where appearance is not a primary concern.

[edit] Level 3

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and one additional coat of joint compound applied over all joints and interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with two separate coats of joint compound. All joint compound shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of final finishes.
Usage: Suitable base for heavy-medium textured paint or other thick finishes.

[edit] Level 4

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and two separate coats of joint compound applied over all flat joints and one separate coat of joint compound applied over interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with three separate coats of joint compound. All joint compound shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of final finishes.
Usage: "Standard" household and office walls. Used with light or non-textured finishes. Not suitable for harsh lighting conditions, which may highlight minor imperfections

[edit] Level 5

All joints and interior angles shall have tape embedded in joint compound and two separate coats of joint compound applied over all flat joints and one separate coat of joint compound applied over interior angles. Fastener heads and accessories shall be covered with three separate coats of joint compound. A thin skim coat of joint compound, or a material manufactured especially for this purpose, shall be applied to the entire surface. The surface shall be smooth and free of tool marks and ridges. It is recommended that the prepared surface be coated with a drywall primer prior to the application of finish paint. The skim coat is a final leveling agent suitable to smooth out a surface to be used under the harshest lighting conditions that may otherwise highlight any imperfections under the finished surface.
Usage: Gloss and entirely non-textured surfaces.

[edit] Defective Chinese imports

There are reports that a substantial amount of defective drywall was imported into the United States from China and incorporated into tens of thousands of homes during rebuilding in 2006 and 2007 following Hurricane Katrina and in other places. Complaints include foul odor, health effects, and corrosion of metal within the structure. The same drywall was sold in Asia without problems resulting, but U.S. homes built much more tightly than homes in China, with less ventilation. A number of lawsuits are underway in many jurisdictions, but many of the sheets of drywall are simply marked, "Made in China", thus making identification of the Chinese manufacturer difficult. An investigation by the Consumer Product Safety Commission, CPSC, was underway in 2009.[16] In November 2009, the CPSC reported a "strong association" between Chinese drywall and corrosion of pipes and wires reported by thousands of homeowners in the United States. Further findings have shown that volatile sulfur compounds, including hydrogen sulfide, have been detected as emissions from the imported drywall and may be linked to health problems. Volatile sulfur compounds are emitted from many different types of drywall, and at least one investigation has pointed to high levels being emitted from drywalls manufactured in the United States.[17]

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Carpenter at work in Tennessee, June 1942

Two German Carpenters working (1975)
A carpenter (builder) is a skilled craftsperson who performs carpentry, see also Joiner. Carpenters work with timber to construct, install and maintain buildings, furniture, and other objects. The work may involve manual labor and work outdoors.[1]
Carpentry skill is gained through experience and study. Outside of unions, there are no formal training requirements (in the U.S.) and the trade can be easy to enter. In other countries, such as Germany, Japan and Canada there are strict standards.
The word "carpenter" is the English rendering of the Old French word carpentier (become charpentier) which is derived from the Latin carpentrius [artifex], "(maker) of a carriage.[2] The Middle English and Scots word (in the sense of "builder") was wright (from the Old English wryhta), which could be used in compound forms such as wheelwright or boatwright.[3]
In United States carpenters are commonly referred to as "woodpeckers".In British slang, a carpenter is sometimes referred to as a "chippie". In Australia, they are often called "tradies". One of the German words for carpenter is "Zimmermann" from the Middle High German zimbermann (a compound of zimber, zim(m)er cf. English ‘timber’ + mann ‘man’), and hence is the source for the surname in German and English-speaking countries. Other woodworking names/professions, that also occur as a surname, are Tischler and Schreiner.
Carpentry in the United States is almost always done by men. With 98.5% of carpenters being male, it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999.[4]



[edit] Types and occupations

A finish carpenter (South America) also called a joiner (traditional name now obsolete in North America) is one who does finish carpentry; that is, cabinetry, furniture making, fine woodworking, model building, instrument making, parquetry, joinery, or other carpentry where exact joints and minimal margins of error are important. Some large-scale construction may be of an exactitude and artistry that it is classed as finish carpentry.

Traditional carpenter's tools
Ethnographic Museum of Western Liguria, Cervo, Italy
A trim carpenter specializes in molding and trim, such as door and window casings, mantels, baseboard, and other types of ornamental work. Cabinet installers may also be referred to as trim carpenters.
A cabinetmaker is a carpenter who does fine and detailed work, specializing in the making of cabinets made from wood, wardrobes, dressers, storage chests, and other furniture designed for storage.
A ship's carpenter specializes in shipbuilding, maintenance, and repair techniques (see also shipwright) and carpentry specific to nautical needs; usually the term refers to a carpenter who has a post on a specific ship. Steel warships as well as wooden ones need ship's carpenters, especially for making emergency repairs in the case of battle or storm damage.
A scenic carpenter in filmmaking, television, and the theater builds and dismantles temporary scenery and sets.
A framer is a carpenter that builds the skeletal structure or framework of buildings. Techniques include platform framing, balloon framing, or timber framing (which may be post-and-beam or mortise-and-tenon framing).

A carpenter and his mate prepare a door for installation in England (2009)
A luthier is someone who makes or repairs stringed instruments. The word luthier comes from the French word for lute, "luth".
A formwork carpenter creates the shuttering and falsework used in concrete construction.
In Japan, Miya-daiku (Temple carpenter) performs the works of both architect and builder of shrine and temple.
Green carpentry is the specialization in the use of environmentally friendly,energy-efficient and sustainable sources of building materials to use in construction projects.[5]

[edit] Training

Carpenters in an Indian village
Tradesmen in countries such as Germany are required to fulfil a formal apprenticeship (usually three years) to work as a professional carpenter. Upon graduation from the apprenticeship, he or she is known as a journeyman carpenter. Up through the 19th and even the early 20th century, the journeyman traveled to another region of the country to learn the building styles and techniques of that area before (usually) returning home. In modern times, journeymen are not required to travel, and the term refers more to a level of proficiency and skill. Union carpenters in the United States - United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America - are required to pass a skills test to be granted official journeyman status, but uncertified professional carpenters may be known as journeymen based on their skill level, years of experience, or simply because they support themselves in the trade, and not due to certification or formal woodworking education.
After working as a journeyman for a period, a carpenter may go to study or test as a master carpenter. In some countries, such as Germany or Japan, this is an arduous and expensive process, requiring extensive knowledge (including economic and legal knowledge) and skill to achieve master certification; these countries generally require master status for anyone employing and teaching apprentices in the craft. In others, it can be a loosely used term to describe a skilled carpenter.
In Canada, each province sets its own standards for apprenticeship. The average length of time is four years and includes a minimum number of hours of both on the job training and technical instruction at a college or other institution. Depending on the number of hours of instruction an apprentice receives, he or she can earn a Certificate of Proficiency, making them a journeyman, or a Certificate of Qualification, which allows them to practice a more limited amount of carpentry. Canadian carpenters also have the option of acquiring an additional Interprovincial Red Seal[1] that allows them to practice anywhere in Canada. The Red Seal requires the completion of an apprenticeship and an additional examination.
In the modern British construction industry, carpenters are trained through apprenticeship schemes where GCSEs in Mathematics, English and Technology help, but are not essential. This is deemed as the preferred route as young people can earn and gain field experience whilst training towards a nationally recognized qualification.
Fully trained carpenters and joiners will often move into related trades such as Shop fitting, frameworking, bench joinery, maintenance and system installation.

[edit] Notable carpenters

Religious figures
Historic figures


[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ Byron W. Maguire (1988). Carpentry in Commercial Construction. Craftsman Book Company. ISBN 0-934041-33-4. 
  2. ^ The American heritage dictionary of the English language - Etymology of the word "carpenter"
  3. ^ The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
  4. ^ "Evidence From Census 2000 About Earnings by Detailed Occupation for Men and Women. Census 2000 Special Reports, May 2004." (PDF). Retrieved 2006-09-02. 
  5. ^ "Defining Green-Collar Jobs". "There is no consensus on how to define green-collar jobs. A very broad interpretation of green jobs would include all existing and new jobs that contribute to environmental quality through improved efficiencies, better resource management, and other technologies that successfully address the environmental challenges facing society. Probably the most concise, general definition is “well-paid, career track jobs that contribute directly to preserving or enhancing environmental quality” (Apollo Alliance 2008, 3). This definition suggests that green-collar jobs directly contribute to improving environmental quality, but would not include low-wage jobs that provide little mobility. Most discussion of green-collar jobs does not refer to positions that require a college degree, but they typically do involve training beyond high school. Many of the positions are similar to skilled, blue-collar jobs, such as electricians, welders, carpenters, etc." 

[edit] External links

Oakland County, Michigan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Oakland County, Michigan
Seal of Oakland County, Michigan
Map of Michigan highlighting Oakland County
Location in the state of Michigan
Map of the U.S. highlighting Michigan
Michigan's location in the U.S.
Founded January 12, 1819 [1]
Seat Pontiac
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

908 sq mi (2,352 km²)
873 sq mi (2,260 km²)
35 sq mi (92 km²), 3.91%
 - (2000)
 - Density

1,391/sq mi (537/km²)
Website www.OakGov.Com
Oakland County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of 2009, the population was estimated at 1,205,508.[2] The county seat is Pontiac.[3] Oakland County is part of the Detroit metropolitan area, though the actual city of Detroit is located in neighboring Wayne County, south of Eight Mile Road. Oakland County is home to 62 cities, villages and townships. These communities range from blue-collar, inner-ring suburbs like Ferndale and Hazel Park, to wealthy cities such as Birmingham, Bloomfield Hills, West Bloomfield Township, and Franklin. The white-collar cities of Troy, Southfield, Farmington Hills, and Auburn Hills host a diverse mix of Fortune 500 companies. The cities of Royal Oak, home of the Detroit Zoological Park, and Ferndale attract many young people to their mature, bohemian downtowns, which have many restaurants, shops and night clubs. Oakland County is also home to Oakland University, a large public institution that straddles the Auburn Hills and Rochester border.
Metro Detroit's suburbs are among the most affluent in the nation. Oakland County is the 4th wealthiest county in the United States among counties with more than one million people. The county's knowledge-based economic initiative, coined "Automation Alley", is one of the largest employment centers for engineering and related occupations in the United States. Oakland County has shared in the recent economic hardships brought on by troubles at General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler, although it has fared better than Detroit and Flint, as its economy is more diverse and less reliant on manufacturing jobs. All three automotive companies are major employers within southeast Michigan and have a significant presence within Oakland County.



[edit] Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 908 square miles (2,352 km²). Of that, 873 square miles (2,260 km²) of it is land and 35 square miles (92 km²) of it (3.91%) is water.
Oakland County was originally divided into 25 separate townships, which are listed below. Each township is roughly equal in size at six miles (10 km) by six miles, for a total township area of 36 square miles (93 km2). The roots of this design were born out of the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the subsequent Northwest Ordinance of 1787. Oakland County itself is a prime example of the land policy that was established, as all townships are equal in size (save for slight variations due to waterways). Section 16 in each township was reserved for financing and maintaining public education, and even today many schools in Oakland County townships are located within that section.
Wayne County, where the city of Detroit is located, borders Oakland County to the south. The southern boundary is 8 Mile Road, also known as "Baseline Road" in some areas. The baseline was used during the original surveying for Michigan, and it serves as the northern/southern boundaries for counties from Lake St. Clair all the way to Lake Michigan. This divide (8 Mile Road) has been widely known as an unofficial racial dividing line between the largely black city and almost exclusively white suburbs. Some exceptions to this pattern of de facto segregation have developed in recent years, as middle-class African-Americans depart the city for inner-ring suburbs, notably Southfield, west of Woodward Avenue, but to the east the line has endured.

[edit] Adjacent counties

[edit] Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1900 44,792

1910 49,576
1920 90,050
1930 211,251
1940 254,068
1950 396,001
1960 690,259
1970 907,871
1980 1,011,793
1990 1,083,592
2000 1,194,156
Est. 2009 1,205,508
As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 1,194,156 people, 471,115 households, and 315,175 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,369 people per square mile (528/km²). There were 492,006 housing units at an average density of 564 per square mile (218/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 82.75% White, 10.11% Black or African American, 0.27% Native American, 4.14% Asian American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.84% from other races, and 1.86% from two or more races. 2.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Regarding ancestry, 14.4% were German, 9.0% Irish, 8.5% English, 8.5% Polish, 5.7% Italian and 5.5% American, according to Census 2000. 87.4% spoke English, 2.0% Spanish, 1.3% Syriac and 1.0% Arabic as their first language.
The 2000 census showed two Native American tribes with more than 1,000 members in Oakland County. There were 2,095 Cherokee and 1,458 Chippewa.[5]
The Jewish community of metropolitan Detroit, with a population of 72,000, is the 21st largest Jewish community in the nation. This community is concentrated in Oakland County, especially in West Bloomfield, Bloomfield Hills, Farmington Hills and Huntington Woods.[6]
There were 471,115 households, of which 32.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 54.20% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 33.10% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.50% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.51 and the average family size was 3.09.
Among Asian-Americans, eight ethnic groups had more than 1,000 members in the county. The most numerous were those of Asian Indian decent, with 20,705. Next were those of Chinese heritage, numbering 10,018. Next were those of Japanese (5,589), Filipino (5,450) Korean (5,351), Vietnamese (1,687), Pakistani (1,458) and Hmong (1,210) ancestry.[5]
The county's population was spread out in terms of age, with 25.20% of people under the age of 18, 7.20% from 18 to 24, 32.40% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, and 11.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $61,907, and the median income for a family was $75,540 (these figures had risen to $62,308 and $79,589 respectively as of a 2009 estimate[7]). Males had a median income of $55,833 versus $35,890 for females. The per capita income for the county was $32,534. About 3.80% of families and 5.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.50% of those under age 18 and 6.50% of those age 65 or over.
In 2009, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated that non-Hispanic whites (including Arabs and Chaldeans) formed 76.8% of the population; African-Americans, 12.5%; Asian-Americans, 5.7%; and Hispanic or Latino people (of any race), 3.2%.

[edit] History

Created by territorial Gov. Lewis Cass in 1819, sparsely settled Oakland was twice its current size at first, but shrank as Michigan's population grew and new counties were established. Woodward Avenue and the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad helped draw settlers in the 1840s. By 1840, Oakland had more than fifty mills. Pontiac, located on the Clinton River, was Oakland's first town and became the county seat. After the Civil War, Oakland was mainly an agricultural county with numerous isolated villages. By the end of the 19th century, three rail lines served Pontiac and the city attracted carriage and wagon factories. Streetcars began moving people in the late 1890s.
Developers turned southern Oakland County into a suburb of Detroit in the 1890s, when a Cincinnati firm platted a section of Royal Oak called "Urbanrest." Migration worked both ways. Several thousand people moved from Oakland County farms to Detroit as the city attracted factories. By 1910, a number of rich Detroiters had summer homes and some year-round residences in what became Bloomfield Hills. The auto age enveloped Pontiac in the early 1900s. The Oakland Motor Car Co. was founded in 1907 and became a part of General Motors Corp., which was soon Pontiac's dominant firm.
In the 1950s, jobs and people began leaving Detroit. Northland Center opened in 1954. Oakland County passed Wayne County in effective buying power by 1961, when it ranked 28th in the nation in household income. It ranked second-highest nationally in per capita income for counties of more than a million people, behind New York County (Manhattan). The median price of a home in Oakland County skyrocketed to $164,697, more than $30,000 above the national median.

[edit] Government

The county government operates the jail, operates the major local courts, keeps files of deeds and mortgages, maintains vital records, administers public health regulations, and participates with the state in the provision of welfare and other social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget but has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire, building and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. Oakland County has an elected sheriff, and his or her law-enforcement services are used throughout the county. Fourteen cities/townships do not have personalized police forces, but rather contract with the sheriff for police services specific to the municipalities. For instance, the city of Rochester Hills does not have a "Rochester Hills Police Department," but instead has an established sheriff substation in the city with deputies who are dedicated to that city only. That branch operates as the Oakland County Sheriff's Department, Rochester Hills substation. The sheriff operates in the same manner with other municipalities who opt not to have their own police agencies. This typically is a cost-effective way for municipalities to provide police services to its citizens. The county sheriff also maintains a civil division, marine division, alcohol and traffic enforcement units, and an aviation division.
Roads that are not maintained by a local community (city/village) are maintained by the Road Commission for Oakland County, which is governed by three board members appointed by the Oakland County Board of Commissioners.

[edit] Oakland County elected officials

Oakland County Commissioners District 01: Beth Nuccio, District 02: Robert Hoffman, District 03: Michael J. Gingell (Chairman of the Board of Commissioners), District 04: Thomas Middleton, District 05: John A. Scott, District 06: Jim Runestad, District 07: Christine Long, District 08: Philip J. Weipert, District 09: Kathy Crawford, District 10: Mattie M. Hatchett, District 11: Tim Greimel, District 12: Jeff Matis, District 13: Robert Gosselin, District 14: William Dwyer, District 15: Jim Nash, District 16: Shelley G. Taub, District 17: Marcia Gershenson, District 18: Dave Woodward, District 19: Mike Bosnic, District 20: David W. Potts, District 21: Janet Jackson, District 22: Helaine Zack, District 23: Nancy L. Quarles, District 24: Gary R. McGillivray, District 25: Craig Covey
(information as of January 2011)

[edit] Politics

Presidential Election Results 1960-2008
Year Democrat Republican
2008 56.42% 373,270 41.94% 277,480
2004 49.75% 319,387 49.32% 316,633
2000 49.31% 281,201 48.10% 274,319
1996 47.84% 241,884 43.48% 219,855
1992 38.64% 214,733 43.57% 242,160
1988 37.78% 174,745 61.27% 283,359
1984 32.76% 150,286 66.71% 306,050
1980 35.58% 164,869 54.65% 253,211
1976 39.47% 164,266 58.69% 244,271
1972 34.16% 129,400 63.78% 241,613
1968 44.76% 154,630 45.31% 156,538
1964 61.44% 182,797 38.33% 114,025
1960 45.39% 135,531 54.27% 162,026
Oakland County historically has been a stronghold of the Republican Party, in large part because of the party's support for policies that favor businesses. However, the county also contains a sizable number of unaffiliated voters, many of whom have recently favored the Democratic Party. In the 1990s, Oakland County moved toward the Democratic Party at the national level. Political analyst Michael Barone, among others, has theorized that this occurred when cultural issues such as abortion rights and gun control became more salient than economic concerns for more voters, especially affluent suburban women. Democratic presidential candidates won a plurality of the county's vote in 1996, 2000 and 2004, and a majority in 2008 (See chart at right).
In the 111th Congress, Oakland County is represented by two Democrats, Gary Peters and Sander Levin, and two Republicans, Thaddeus McCotter and Mike Rogers. Peters was elected for the first time 2008, a victory that was seen as a particular coup for the Democrats as his seat, the 9th, had been held by Republicans for over twenty years.

[edit] Cities, villages, and townships

The white areas represent unincorporated charter and civil townships. The gray areas represent incorporated cities and villages.

[edit] Cities

1In the 2000 Census, Farmington Hills was the most populous city in the county. As of the 2005 Census estimates, Troy is now the most populous city.
2As of 2004, Hazel Park was the second most densely populated city in the state, succeeding Royal Oak Charter Township after a portion of the township was annexed into Oak Park.

[edit] Villages

[edit] Townships

* Township has been incorporated into a city: Avon to the City of Rochester Hills; Farmington to the City of Farmington Hills; Pontiac to the City of Pontiac, City of Lake Angelus and City of Auburn Hills; and Troy to the City of Troy. For survey purposes, these areas are still referred to by the assigned township name.

[edit] Transportation

[edit] Air

[edit] Major highways

(Walter P. Chrysler Freeway) is the main north-south route in the region, serving Flint, Pontiac, Troy, and Detroit, before continuing south (as the Fisher and Detoit-Toledo Freeways) to serve many of the communities along the shore of Lake Erie.

runs northwest-southeast through Oakland County and (as the Jeffries Freeway) has its eastern terminus in downtown Detroit.

runs north-south from I-75 in the south to the junction of I-96 and I-696 in the north, providing a bypass through the western suburbs of Detroit.

(Walter P. Reuther Freeway) runs east-west from the junction of I-96 and I-275, providing a route through the northern suburbs of Detroit. Taken together, I-275 and I-696 form a semicircle around Detroit.

US 24.svg
US-24 ends north of Pontiac at I-75. To the south, US 24 serves suburban Detroit and Monroe before entering Ohio. Much of US 24 in Oakland County is named Telegraph Road (US 24), and it is a major north-south road extending from Toledo, Ohio through Monroe, Wayne, and Oakland Counties to Pontiac. It gained notoriety in a song (Telegraph Road) by the group Dire Straits.

M-1 (Woodward Avenue) has a northern terminus in Pontiac. The route continues southerly from Oakland County into the City of Detroit, ending downtown. The Detroit Zoo is located along M-1 in Oakland County. M-1 is also home to the Woodward Dream Cruise, a classic-car cruise from Pontiac to Ferndale that is held in August. It is the largest single-day classic-car cruise in America.


M-10: The John C. Lodge Freeway runs largely parallel to I-75 from Southfield to downtown Detroit.

M-15 (Ortonville Road, Main St. in Clarkston)

M-24 (Lapeer Road) has a southern terminus at I-75 north of Pontiac. To the north, the route continues to Lapeer and beyond. Note: M-24 and US 24 do not intersect at present, although this was the case until the 1950s.

M-39: The Southfield Freeway runs north-south from Southfield to Allen Park from I-94. North of 10 Mile Road, the freeway ends and continues as Southfield Road into Birmingham.

M-59 (Highland Road [from Pontiac westerly], Huron Street [within Pontiac] and Veterans Memorial Freeway [Pontiac to Utica]), continues east in Macomb County as Hall Road to Clinton Township and west to I-96 near Howell

M-102 Perhaps better known as 8 Mile Road, M-102 follows the Oakland/Wayne County boundary line for most of its length. 8 Mile Road, known by many due to the film 8 Mile, forms the dividing line between Detroit on the south and the suburbs of Macomb and Oakland counties on the north. It is also known as Baseline Road outside of Detroit, because it coincides with the baseline used in surveying Michigan; that baseline is also the boundary for a number of Michigan counties, as well as the boundary for Illinois and Wisconsin. It is designated as M-102 for much of its length in Wayne County.

M-150 (Rochester Road) serves as a spur highway from M-59 into the city of Rochester.

[edit] Other major roads

  • Grand River Avenue connects the suburbs of Brighton, Novi, and Farmington to downtown Detroit. The avenue follows the route of old U.S. Route 16, before I-96 replaced it in 1962. It is one of the five roads planned by Judge August Woodward to radiate out from Detroit and connect the city to other parts of the state.

[edit] Mile roads

  • Surface-street navigation in metro Detroit is commonly anchored by "mile roads," major east-west surface streets that are spaced at one-mile (1.6 km) intervals and increment as one travels north and away from the city center. Mile roads sometimes have two names, the numeric name (e.g., 15 Mile Road), used in Macomb County, and a local name (e.g., Maple Road), used in Oakland County (for the most part).

[edit] Bicycling

The conditions on most non-residential roads in Oakland County are not favorable to bicycling. Exceptions to this are primarily in the inner-ring suburbs within the southeast corner of the county. This is due to their street grid.
A primary reason for these unfavorable cycling conditions is the Road Commission for Oakland County has a policy of not accommodating bicycles on the road. As a result, some communities have designated sidepaths (locally called "safety paths") as bike routes which do not meet the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) guidelines for bicycling facilities and have been found to be less safe than on-road bike facilities.[9]
As a result, there are no designated Bicycle Friendly Communities within Oakland County.
Novi, Berkley, Clawson, and Ferndale have passed Complete Streets resolutions or ordinances. Only the city of Ferndale has a comprehensive bicycle network. The city of Troy has developed the first non-motorized plan within the county but it has not been adopted by their city council (as of October 2010.) Royal Oak and Novi are currently developing non-motorized plans.

[edit] Programs

Oakland County Community and Home Improvement Division
Funded through The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) primarily in the form of Community Development Block Grants (CDBG), this program benefits low to moderate income residents of the 50 communities in Oakland County's program. CDBG funds are used to keep residential neighborhoods sound, attractive, and economically viable.
One facet of the program involves distributing low-interest, deferred-payment loans to homeowners in participating communities to update their residences. Oakland County technicians inspect approved homes and write up work specifications, which are then bid out to approximately six contractors. After bidding, homeowners may either approve the lowest bidder or pay the difference between the lowest bidder and the contractor of their choice.

Oakland County Homebuyer Program For Vacant Foreclosed Properties
Oakland County's Homebuyer Program for vacant foreclosed properties is part of the Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) created by the U.S. Congress in 2008 for redeveloping and occupying abandoned and foreclosed homes. NSP is funded through The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Office of Community Planning and Development under the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Program and locally administered by the staff at the Oakland County Community & Home Improvement Division.
Oakland County's Homebuyer Program provides homebuyers loans for down payment assistance, closing costs, home improvements for eligible vacant foreclosed single family homes located within participating Oakland County communities.

Oakland County Main Street Program
Oakland County established the first county-level Main Street program in the U.S. in February 2000.
Main Street Oakland County (MSOC) is housed within the Planning Group of the Planning & Economic Development Services Division of Oakland County's Department of Community & Economic Development. Oakland County is now a partner with the National Trust's Main Street Center and contracts with them for services to the county and local communities.
MSOC ...
  • empowers Oakland County's traditional downtowns to establish and/or maintain successful, comprehensive, ongoing revitalization programs;
  • builds a greater awareness of the economic and quality of life importance of revitalizing and maintaining the county's historic commercial districts;
  • provides the stakeholders of Oakland County's traditional downtowns with technical assistance and training resources;
  • provides information about downtown revitalization to the county's communities, business organizations, and residents;
  • assists communities in implementing the "Main Street Four Point Approach" to downtown management in each of the county's traditional downtowns and corridors;
  • facilitates networking and communication between communities about downtown revitalization;
  • provides information about county business finance programs and other economic development resources to existing downtown businesses and to those considering downtown locations;
  • monitors and measures progress and success in local downtown revitalization efforts; and
  • assists each of the county's 30 traditional downtowns and town centers to help them realize their full economic development potential while preserving their sense of place.
MSOC is currently working with 12 downtowns in Oakland County. These communities were selected after a detailed application process in which they demonstrated their readiness and commitment to participating in the National Trust Main Street program.
Oakland County's Main Street Communities
Farmington Keego Harbor Pontiac
Ferndale Lake Orion Rochester
Highland Ortonville Royal Oak
Holly Oxford Walled Lake

[edit] Education

[edit] Higher education

Oakland County is home to several institutions of higher education.
Baker College of Auburn Hills, located in Auburn Hills, Michigan,(Not fully Accredited) has a current enrollment of approximately 5,000 students. Baker College of Auburn Hills is part of the nine campus Baker College System.
Oakland University, located in Rochester, is a research university with more than 18,000 students. Rated as one of the country's 82 Doctoral/Research universities by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, OU announced plans in the spring of 2007 to establish a medical school on its campus in collaboration with William Beaumont Hospital. The medical school, which will be the fourth in the state of Michigan to offer the M.D. degree, is slated to open in 2010. OU has also partnered with The Thomas M. Cooley Law School which operates one of its campuses near OU, to provide a legal curriculum.
Lawrence Technological University, located in Southfield, has a current enrollment of approximately 4,000 students. Lawrence Tech, which was originally founded in 1932 as Lawrence Institute of Technology, is consistently ranked in the top tier of Midwestern Master's Universities in the annual U.S. News & World Report rankings.
Rochester College, located in Rochester, has a current enrollment of approximately 1,000 students. Affiliated with the Churches of Christ, Rochester College offers a variety of academic programs in the liberal arts and sciences, business, and education.
South University has a new campus in Novi on Twelve Mile Road just east of Twelve Oaks Mall.
Walsh College, officially Walsh College of Accountancy and Business, has campuses in Troy, Novi, and in Macomb County.
Oakland Community College, which is one of Michigan's largest community colleges, operates five campuses throughout Oakland County: Orchard Ridge, Auburn Hills, Southfield, Highland Lakes, and Royal Oak.

[edit] Primary and secondary education

Many of the public school districts in Oakland County have multiple "National Exemplary" Schools. The International Academy (IA), which is part of the Bloomfield Hills School District, has been ranked by Newsweek as one of the top 10 public high schools in the nation every year since 2003, when IA was ranked the top public high school in the United States.
Oakland County also is home to a number of well-known private schools, including the Detroit Country Day School, Brother Rice High School, the Cranbrook Schools, Everest Academy, and the Roeper School.

[edit] Sports

Club League Venue Established Championships
Detroit Pistons National Basketball Association The Palace of Auburn Hills 1958 (moved to the Palace in 1988) 3
Detroit Shock Womens National Basketball Association Moved to Oklahoma, October 2009 1998 3
Oakland County Cruisers FL, Baseball Diamond at the Summit 2009 0

[edit] See also

[edit] References

[edit] External links

Coordinates: 42°40′N 83°23′W / 42.66°N 83.38°W / 42.66; -83.38

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